IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 121 - 132
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Dinesh K. Saxena, Sachin Agarwal, A Saxena , Seema Kodesia from Department of Botany, Bareilly College, Bareilly, India. University of Waterloo, Canada, Research Scholar Environmental Sciences, IGNOU, New Delhi
Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants, such as metals, are extremely variable in space and time and it is cumbersome and expensive to deduce detailed information over a vast area using traditional instruments. Consequently, a cost-effective bio-monitor was preferred in the present study to analyze the atmospheric metal load. For this purpose, a moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw was inducted amongst moss species available to evaluate the intensity and trend of atmospheric deposition of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in Jammu in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India for a period of three years, 2014- 2016. The biomonitoring experimentation was performed by transplanting moss bags prepared from Hypnum cupressiforme, after validating its tolerance against metals using a photosynthetic efficiency analyzer in the field. Moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw exposed seasonally, covering summer, monsoon, and winter periods, upon the analysis provided time-integrated patterns of metal bioavailability at the study sites. An attempt was made to compare the seasonal variations during the three years of study and findings exhibited significant seasonal variations in metal. The gradient of the metal load was in the order of Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb. The total average percentage increase in the metals under consideration, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, was 40%, 37%,79%, and 76%, respectively during three subsequent years. It is worth mentioning here that biomonitoring studies on atmospheric metals have never been explored for this region. read more... read less...
Keywords: Biomonitoring, atmospheric metals, moss bag transplants, temporal trend, Hypnum cupressiforme
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 115 - 119
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Suad Abdulkareem, Isam Janajreh from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hearing loss (HL) is one of the six key contributors to worldwide disease rates. It is becoming a critical issue in society, not just affecting the aging population, but also negatively impacting young people who are spending more of their spare time performing activities that expose them to excessive noise levels. In this research, we intend to design a filter as a signal processing system in a hearing aid (HA). MATLAB is used to model the digital filter structure, while Simulink is used to capture the entire design. This study examines current critical concerns in hearing aid research from the perspectives of a variety of disciplines. The study proposes a filter and signal processor model based on hearing aid experience, but first, it provides an audiogram for numerous examples to determine if the suggested model would suit or not. The work thus provides an effective compensation of missed high-frequency sounds response in patient hearing by the digital signal processor read more... read less...
Keywords: Hearing Aid, Simulink, Hearing Filter
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 105 - 114
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Ussama Ali , Muhammad Sajid Kamran from Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
Abstract: This work focuses on the rib-turbulated cooling which is a category of impingement cooling and aims at optimizing the geometry of rib-roughened cooling passage of a gas turbine blade. CFD analysis is carried out using Ansys/Fluent to solve the steady RANS equations. Computational domain consists of a long rectangular channel with the length of the channel being 9 times its height. Ratios of rib width, rib height and rib pitch to hydraulic diameter of the channel are taken as 0.1, 0.1 and 1.2, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the performance of various rib shapes for Reynolds number, based upon the hydraulic diameter, in a range of 5000 to 50,000. Uniform heat flux of 800 W/m2 is applied to the ribbed wall. Incompressible air is used as the cooling fluid. Turbulent flow conditions are applied to the channel geometry with k-ω turbulence model. The effect of rib cross-section and rib pitch to rib width ratio on the heat transfer and friction factor is observed. The 2D CFD analysis revealed that the presence of ribs has significant effect on thermo-hydraulic performance of the cooling channel. Introducing square ribs in a smooth channel caused the Nusselt number to increase by two-folds. The highest value of Nusselt number was achieved by incorporating right-angle triangular ribs which caused the Nusselt number to increase by further 8%, as compared to the square ribs, and an increase in friction factor of 2.5%. The lowest value of friction factor was observed in semicircular ribs (2.95% less than the square ribs), however, the Nusselt number also decreased by 1.5%, as compared to square ribs. Decreasing rib pitch to rib width ratio increased both the Nusselt number and friction factor for all the cases. For square ribs, decreasing this ratio from 15 to 9 resulted in the rise of Nusselt number by 50% and increase in friction factor by 54%. read more... read less...
Keywords: Gas turbine blade cooling, Obstructed flow, Heat transfer enhancement, Turbulators, Ribbed channel
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 99 - 104
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Mubarak Yakubu, Isam Janajreh from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: The acoustic performance of a typical Helmholtz resonator is important for optimizing sound absorption coefficient. The acoustic impedance of the Helmholtz resonator varies with different geometric features. As such, various studies have been conducted to investigate some parametric effects like neck length, extended neck, orifice size, cavity size and glazing flow speed. In this study, we explore, numerically, the effect of cavity shape and geometric aspect ratios among other features. We determined the optimum geometric shapes, dimension and flow condition for better sound absorption of the Helmholtz resonator. read more... read less...
Keywords: Helmholtz resonator, transmission loss, acoustic impedance, resonance frequency
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 25 - 31
Published: 21 Aug 2021
by Khaled Shaaban, Osama Halabi, Eman Almughani from Utah Valley University, Orem, United States, 84058 and Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, 2713
Abstract: To improve traffic safety, different systems were invented to warn drivers when detecting a conflict. However, drivers may be already aware of such conflicts. In these cases, warning drivers may not effective and may lead drivers to not pay attention to warnings in the case of serious conflicts. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel posture recognition system to detect different driver activities while driving. If drivers are not braking or decelerating in the case of a conflict, they are alerted and notified about the conflict. The proposed system is based on a passive method for measuring bodypostures by using two force sensor arrays to inspect the pressure patterns exhibited in the driver’s seat and backrest. Different sensors' distributions were tested to find the most suitable distribution to improve the accuracy of the recognition. A virtual reality (VR) driving simulation was developed to test the accuracy of recognition in an immersive environment. Experiments were carried out to test the posture recognition accuracy in both realistic and VR settings. The results showed that the system could recognize different postures with high accuracy. Such a system can be used to alert drivers and disengage autonomous mode in the case of self-driving and autonomous vehicles when the situation unsafe. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sitting posture, activity recognition, driving simulator, virtual reality, autonomous vehicles
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 17 - 24
Published: 18 Aug 2021
by Anna Reiffer, Jelle Kübler , Lars Briem, Martin Kagerbauer, Peter Vortisch from Institute for Transport Studies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Abstract: With the increased shift from in-store shopping to e-commerce, we can expect the share of delivery vehicles in cities to rise as well. This puts great pressure on cities and surrounding areas as emissions rise and space becomes scarce. Because the last leg of the delivery chain is so costly, there have been many studies on how the last-mile issue can be diminished. However, most studies only cover deliveries independently from the orders. This paper presents a modelling approach that integrates travel demand, package orders and subsequent deliveries within the same framework. One of the benefits of the integrated modelling approach is that the model can evaluate the agents’ locations at all times during the simulation. This allows us to model different states of delivery on a microscopic level. We have applied the model to Karlsruhe, Germany with a synthetic population of just over 300.000 agents. The results show that the model simulates both package orders and the subsequent delivery tours realistically. The model framework allows for detailed analysis of delivery states and success rates and can be used for scenario analysis of different delivery methods and changes in online shopping behaviour. read more... read less...
Keywords: last-mile, agent-based, travel demand, urban freight
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 09 - 16
Published: 13 Aug 2021
by Inhi Kim , Khaled Shaaban from Kongju National University, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah, United States, 84058
Abstract: Driving simulators are used for many applications including traffic safety. There are several types of driving simulators available for researchers and engineers. This study aims to compare fixed and moving driving simulators in assessing driving behaviors at railway crossings equipped with either typical stop signs or in-vehicle audio safety system. Data used in the comparison included vehicle speed profiles, compliance rates, and braking reaction times. It was found that compliance rates were similar whereas speed profiles and breaking reaction times were slightly different. As the results of the desktop simulator had previously been compared with those from the data collected in the field, the comparison of results between the two simulators reported here can serve as a blueprint to calibrate the use of moving simulators. In summary, the different properties of the simulator can lead drivers to react to warnings differently. read more... read less...
Keywords: Braking reaction time, compliance rates, fixed driving simulator, moving driving simulator, speed profiles
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 01 - 08
Published: 07 Aug 2021
by Namwoo Kim, Yoonjin Yoon from Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 Korea
Abstract: In a new era of mobility where the transportation of persons or goods via flying vehicles over urban areas has garnered great interest in its application in urban space. With the anticipated utilization of sUAS in urban airspace, a multi-dimensional understanding of urban space is essential. As a first step to assess the feasibility of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) in urban areas, we conduct regionalization and correspondence analysis in highly urbanized areas – San Francisco, CA and Manhattan, NY – by incorporating population dataset and urban 3D airspace to delineate the regional boundaries. Regionalization is carried out using graph-based clustering technique called SKATER (Spatial ‘K’luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal) to group the regions having similar characteristics and address the compound effect of both population and spatial information. By classifying the regions into five categories through correspondence analysis, the operational and economic feasibility of each region is evaluated. The results provide the region maps of each city with the most and least attractive regions for UAM application with the temporal notion, whether the clusters are daytime-intensive or nighttime-intensive areas. The outcomes have several unique information that can benefit drone delivery target area identification, landing location identification, demand prediction. Our approach can contribute to providing a useful basis for management for UAM in urban areas as well as the process of regulating airspace use. read more... read less...
Keywords: Urban Air Mobility, UAS Traffic Management, Geodemographic Analysis, Spatial Clustering
JUSPN, volume-16 , Issue 1 (2022), PP 49 - 53
Published: 26 Jan 2022
by Choukri Djellali, Mehdi adda , Mohamed Tarik Moutacalli from Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Quebec At Rimouski Rimouski, Canada, G5L 3A1
Abstract: Numerical schemes research on clustering models has been quite intensive in the past decade. Many models have been proposed to address the clustering tasks. Most clustering models are influenced by presentation order, complex shapes, architecture configuration, and learning instability. Hence, in the present study, a novel clustering-based method for cloud computing that provides an improvement in recognition rate, is described. The evaluation, based on 10-fold Cross-validation, showed that the proposed model, which is named BaggingCluster, yielded good results and performed better than Self Organizing Map and fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory. Experimental studies demonstrate that our model provides an efficient model for cloud computing. read more... read less...
Keywords: Data Mining, Deep Learning, Clustering, Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, Cross-Validation.
JUSPN, volume-16 , Issue 1 (2022), PP 37 - 47
Published: 24 Jan 2022
by Ruben Dobler Strand, Sindre Stokkenes, Lars Michael Kristensen, Torgrim Log from Department of Safety, Chemistry, and Biomedical laboratory sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Haugesund, Norway, Department of Computer science, Electrical engineering and Mathematical sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway
Abstract: Dry and cold winter seasons result in very dry indoor conditions and have historically contributed to severe fires in the high and dense representation of wooden homes in Norway. The fire in Lærdalsøyri, January 2014, is a devastating reminder of town fires still posing a threat to a modern society. In order to reduce conflagration probability and consequences, it is necessary to have an accurate estimate of the current and near future fire risk to take proper planning precautions. Cloud computing services providing access to weather data in the form of measurements and forecasts, combined with recent developments in fire risk modelling, may enable smart and fine-grained fire risk prediction services. The main contribution of this study is implementation and experimental validation of a wooden home predictive fire risk indication model, as well as outlining a wooden home fire risk concept. The wooden home fire risk model focuses on the first house catching fire (indoors) in a potential conflagration event. Such a fire would be critical to intervene prior to the fire developing exterior flames and embers post flashover, and thus high likelihood of fire spread. The implemented model exploits cloud-provided weather measurements and forecasts, to predict the current- and near future fire risk at given geographical locations. It computes the indoor wooden fuel moisture content of houses that may catch fire, using measured and forecasted outdoor temperature and relative humidity, and estimates the time to flashover. The latter is found through an empirical relation with the fuel moisture content, and can be used as an indication of the fire risk, beyond the modelled single house. The model implementation was integrated into a micro-service based software system and experimentally validated at selected geographical locations, relying on weather data provided by the RESTful API’s of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. The validation took place by applying the model to predefined cases, with an outcome known from observations or theory. The first part is a general evaluation of the outputs, considering three historical fires. Then, seasonal changes and natural climate variations were considered. Our evaluation demonstrates the ability to provide trustworthy and accurate fire risk indications using a combination of recorded weather data and forecasts. Further, our cloud- and micro-service based software system implementation is efficient with respect to data storage and computation time. Finally, the novel fire risk concept is demonstrated for a selected city, based on model output. It successfully depicts the implications following reduced indoor humidity by utilizing location specific fire risk contours. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart city and cloud data services, Climate related fire risk, Mitigating urban fire risk
JUSPN, volume-16 , Issue 1 (2022), PP 29 - 35
Published: 20 Jan 2022
by Tariq Abu Hilal, Salam Hoshang, Hasan Abu Hilal from Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 4101
Abstract: Many higher education institutions are focusing on flipped classroom to gain the benefits that can be reaped for the institution, the students and teachers. The attractiveness of the flipped classroom is increasing, due to the Covid-19 situation and the promptly switch to the online teaching approach by many institutions. Based on the researchers' preliminary investigation, the utilization of flipped classrooms approach among educators is still not fully exploited. This initial and seed research aims to investigate students' and educators' point of view concerning the application of the flipped classroom concept. This qualitative research is based on interviews of focus groups, observations and mini structured surveys that aim to answer the main research question how the students and educator view flipped classroom. The researchers collected data from some 300 students and about ten educator form information systems and engineering disciplines. The research results reveal that students, as well as educators, are aware of flipped classrooms but more training in the tools and concepts of the flipped classroom is required. Flipped classrooms can bring enormous benefits to students, institutions and educators. The outcomes of this research work showed that students and educators prefer the flipped classroom approach in some aspects. In this paper, we provide and discuss the employment of the flipped classroom idea in a hybrid learning setting. We trust that this is an innovative learning strategy when the proper modern technology is utilized. Such as the utilization of smart gadgets to perform different tasks, like teaching, designing question bank, assessment of students, feedback…etc. We further focus on the use of information technology as well as the development of the course content. This paper provides a case study of hybrid learning flipped classroom at HCT. As the HCT is running completely hybrid in the last couple of years. As a result of this study in the United Arab Emirates, 62% of the teachers were comfortable with flipped classrooms read more... read less...
Keywords: Flipped classroom, Online Education, Undergraduate Studies, Hybrid Learning.
JUSPN, volume-16 , Issue 1 (2022), PP 23 - 27
Published: 19 Jan 2022
by Krish Bhanushali, Viren Sureja , Vidhan Patel , Tanmay Thaker , Nishant Doshi from Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, India, Gujarat-382426
Abstract: Currently, in a modern world where people are getting busier, it is hard for them to take time to work-out or exercise regularly by themselves. People have been using the gym as a place to make their body fit and it is right as Health and Immunity are an important part of a person’s life and everyone would always like to be fit and healthy. To achieve that level requires motivation and discipline. And lack of motivation results in quitting the gym in a very short span. Now Generally in Gym, there are only a few that keep track of everything, others we have a huge marketplace for the people who joined but quit soon since doing exercise doesn’t give you short-term results. The changes in your body start appearing after months. The slightest changes and every other important aspect can be hard to keep track of them altogether, now using smart gym approach, the slightest change can be measured, using IoT and later one can curate all the training regiments, diets and exercises properly according to it. We propose an overall IoT-based-system to monitor the user's Health and Fitness Records in an effective way of using a database management system. It plans to collect data from the machines when the user uses it, keep track of its workouts and diet intake, with a gym social media that would help to maintain a competitive environment, also including management of membership, payment, trainers, and employees. This would result in a whole new way of looking towards the gym. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart Gym; database; IoT; Health and Fitness monitoring
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 75 - 81
Published: 13 Nov 2017
by S. Praveen, J. Jegan from M.E (Construction Engineering & Management), Department of Civil Engineering, James College of Engineering & Technology, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, India, Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract: The authors explore transport and trade as two broad service sectors of inland water resources. An attempt is made to find out the key issues and challenges from this sector with the evolving understanding of Indian inland water transportation system. The paper explains the background of inland water transport sector in India along with the discussion of issues and challenges faced by the same. The authors state that co-operation and co-ordination between inter-state governments is a strategic element to expand the network of inland water transport system in India beyond state boundaries. Conclusively, the prospect of inland navigation looks promising, wherein issues on infrastructural gaps and institutional support are addressed suitably. read more... read less...
Keywords: Inland Water, Navigation, Transportation, National Waterways
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 67 - 74
Published: 18 Oct 2017
by Otu, Ubong Etop from Department Of Marine Biology, Akwa Ibom State University P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Nigeria
Abstract: Wastewater treatment is an efficient technique that increases the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for other productive uses, thereby, reducing the demand for freshwater resources, conservation of aquatic habitat, and sustainable utilization of water resources. Concerns for wastewater in Sweden began in the 1930s with only mechanical treatment but efficiently implemented in the 1960s as a result of significant eutrophication observed in open waters such as the Baltic Sea. Although prevailing wastewater treatment is fairly efficient, there is need to upgrade and improve existing treatment facilities (constructed in the 1970s) to mitigate potentially degradation of hygienic conditions due to the estimated increase in Swedish population. Thus, this paper will critically analyse prevailing treatment of wastewater in Sweden, the technology used and possible challenges encountered in the process. Small scale treatment of wastewater particularly practiced for dwellings not connected to municipal treatment plant will be discussed including sludge management in Sweden. The report further presented the significant issues including regulations, challenges, health hazards and constraints associated with wastewater treatment and reclamation. In addition, background information relating to potential technology to meet future wastewater treatment in Sweden were highlighted because current wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in the 1970s to provide services to Swedish population at that time. read more... read less...
Keywords: Water, Wastewater treatment, Grey wastewater, Sludge Management
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 59 - 65
Published: 04 Sep 2017
by Gathagu John Ng’ang’a, Mainya Johnstone Isiah, Oduor Brian Omondi, Khaldoon A. Mourad from Pan African University Institute for water and Energy Sciences, Tlemcen, Algeria, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, 22100
Abstract: Soil and water conservation measures are widely practiced in Kenya to tackle the degradation of the ecosystems and to improve land productivity. Local government and NGOs have developed programs and campaigns about soil and water conservation measures. The aim of this study is to assess the need for soil and water conservation measures in Thika- Chania catchment by conducting a household survey using QuickTap Survey software. A total of 200 respondents were successfully interviewed and results analyzed in SPSS program. GIS tools were also used to do a classification of slopes in the study area. Results indicate that more than 90% of the people in the catchment area are farmers. In the recent years, 50% of the respondents have noted a decline in the vegetation. During the rain seasons, the intensity of color in the local rivers due to sediments have been observed to increase by 75% of the respondent while 9% said there was no change. More than 70% of the respondents indicated that the water levels have been on the declining trend especially during the low flows. Terraces and grass strips were the common soil and water conservation measures although some of them were severely degraded. We concluded that there is an immediate need to implement soil and water conservation measures in the catchment to enhance and restore the optimum functioning of the ecosystems. Capacity building and frequent extension services are needed to increase awareness on the impacts of the respective conservation methods. Incentives programs need to be established to encourage more farmers to participate in conserving and protecting their lands from degradation. read more... read less...
Keywords: Baseline survey, soil and water conservation, capacity building, degradation.
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 1 (2017), PP 49 - 57
Published: 03 Apr 2017
by J. Nyika, G.N. Karuku, and R. N. Onwonga from Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya
Abstract: Water systems have complex component interactions necessitating development and evaluation of management amidst uncertainties of climate and constrained natural resources. Conceptual models such as WEAP when used are effective planning and management tools as they forecast future effects of resource use efficiency at sub-catchment level using existent hydrological and climate data thereby acting as corrective measure to poor resources management. This study aimed at using WEAP model to forecast demand and analyze scenarios on efficient water use in Mbagathi subcatchment. WEAP model schematic was set to develop current and reference scenarios. Parameters used to run WEAP model were a GIS map of the sub-catchment, climate data from Kenya Meteorological Department at Dagorretti Corner Station, hydrological and water demand data from WRMA databases. High population growth and prolonged drought were predicted to increase water demand while reuse though not practised, was found by the model to be the most effective approach to manage unmet demands as compared to reduced conveyance losses and increased reservoir capacity. The study concluded that water reuse through exploitation of wastewater could be a viable solution to Mbagathi sub-catchment's water problems. read more... read less...
Keywords: water problems, necessitating development, evaluation of management, climate and constrained natural resources