IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 121 - 132
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Dinesh K. Saxena, Sachin Agarwal, A Saxena , Seema Kodesia from Department of Botany, Bareilly College, Bareilly, India. University of Waterloo, Canada, Research Scholar Environmental Sciences, IGNOU, New Delhi
Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants, such as metals, are extremely variable in space and time and it is cumbersome and expensive to deduce detailed information over a vast area using traditional instruments. Consequently, a cost-effective bio-monitor was preferred in the present study to analyze the atmospheric metal load. For this purpose, a moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw was inducted amongst moss species available to evaluate the intensity and trend of atmospheric deposition of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in Jammu in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India for a period of three years, 2014- 2016. The biomonitoring experimentation was performed by transplanting moss bags prepared from Hypnum cupressiforme, after validating its tolerance against metals using a photosynthetic efficiency analyzer in the field. Moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw exposed seasonally, covering summer, monsoon, and winter periods, upon the analysis provided time-integrated patterns of metal bioavailability at the study sites. An attempt was made to compare the seasonal variations during the three years of study and findings exhibited significant seasonal variations in metal. The gradient of the metal load was in the order of Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb. The total average percentage increase in the metals under consideration, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, was 40%, 37%,79%, and 76%, respectively during three subsequent years. It is worth mentioning here that biomonitoring studies on atmospheric metals have never been explored for this region. read more... read less...
Keywords: Biomonitoring, atmospheric metals, moss bag transplants, temporal trend, Hypnum cupressiforme
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 115 - 119
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Suad Abdulkareem, Isam Janajreh from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hearing loss (HL) is one of the six key contributors to worldwide disease rates. It is becoming a critical issue in society, not just affecting the aging population, but also negatively impacting young people who are spending more of their spare time performing activities that expose them to excessive noise levels. In this research, we intend to design a filter as a signal processing system in a hearing aid (HA). MATLAB is used to model the digital filter structure, while Simulink is used to capture the entire design. This study examines current critical concerns in hearing aid research from the perspectives of a variety of disciplines. The study proposes a filter and signal processor model based on hearing aid experience, but first, it provides an audiogram for numerous examples to determine if the suggested model would suit or not. The work thus provides an effective compensation of missed high-frequency sounds response in patient hearing by the digital signal processor read more... read less...
Keywords: Hearing Aid, Simulink, Hearing Filter
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 105 - 114
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Ussama Ali , Muhammad Sajid Kamran from Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
Abstract: This work focuses on the rib-turbulated cooling which is a category of impingement cooling and aims at optimizing the geometry of rib-roughened cooling passage of a gas turbine blade. CFD analysis is carried out using Ansys/Fluent to solve the steady RANS equations. Computational domain consists of a long rectangular channel with the length of the channel being 9 times its height. Ratios of rib width, rib height and rib pitch to hydraulic diameter of the channel are taken as 0.1, 0.1 and 1.2, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the performance of various rib shapes for Reynolds number, based upon the hydraulic diameter, in a range of 5000 to 50,000. Uniform heat flux of 800 W/m2 is applied to the ribbed wall. Incompressible air is used as the cooling fluid. Turbulent flow conditions are applied to the channel geometry with k-ω turbulence model. The effect of rib cross-section and rib pitch to rib width ratio on the heat transfer and friction factor is observed. The 2D CFD analysis revealed that the presence of ribs has significant effect on thermo-hydraulic performance of the cooling channel. Introducing square ribs in a smooth channel caused the Nusselt number to increase by two-folds. The highest value of Nusselt number was achieved by incorporating right-angle triangular ribs which caused the Nusselt number to increase by further 8%, as compared to the square ribs, and an increase in friction factor of 2.5%. The lowest value of friction factor was observed in semicircular ribs (2.95% less than the square ribs), however, the Nusselt number also decreased by 1.5%, as compared to square ribs. Decreasing rib pitch to rib width ratio increased both the Nusselt number and friction factor for all the cases. For square ribs, decreasing this ratio from 15 to 9 resulted in the rise of Nusselt number by 50% and increase in friction factor by 54%. read more... read less...
Keywords: Gas turbine blade cooling, Obstructed flow, Heat transfer enhancement, Turbulators, Ribbed channel
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 2 (2020), PP 99 - 104
Published: 08 Dec 2020
by Mubarak Yakubu, Isam Janajreh from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: The acoustic performance of a typical Helmholtz resonator is important for optimizing sound absorption coefficient. The acoustic impedance of the Helmholtz resonator varies with different geometric features. As such, various studies have been conducted to investigate some parametric effects like neck length, extended neck, orifice size, cavity size and glazing flow speed. In this study, we explore, numerically, the effect of cavity shape and geometric aspect ratios among other features. We determined the optimum geometric shapes, dimension and flow condition for better sound absorption of the Helmholtz resonator. read more... read less...
Keywords: Helmholtz resonator, transmission loss, acoustic impedance, resonance frequency
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 25 - 31
Published: 21 Aug 2021
by Khaled Shaaban, Osama Halabi, Eman Almughani from Utah Valley University, Orem, United States, 84058 and Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, 2713
Abstract: To improve traffic safety, different systems were invented to warn drivers when detecting a conflict. However, drivers may be already aware of such conflicts. In these cases, warning drivers may not effective and may lead drivers to not pay attention to warnings in the case of serious conflicts. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel posture recognition system to detect different driver activities while driving. If drivers are not braking or decelerating in the case of a conflict, they are alerted and notified about the conflict. The proposed system is based on a passive method for measuring bodypostures by using two force sensor arrays to inspect the pressure patterns exhibited in the driver’s seat and backrest. Different sensors' distributions were tested to find the most suitable distribution to improve the accuracy of the recognition. A virtual reality (VR) driving simulation was developed to test the accuracy of recognition in an immersive environment. Experiments were carried out to test the posture recognition accuracy in both realistic and VR settings. The results showed that the system could recognize different postures with high accuracy. Such a system can be used to alert drivers and disengage autonomous mode in the case of self-driving and autonomous vehicles when the situation unsafe. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sitting posture, activity recognition, driving simulator, virtual reality, autonomous vehicles
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 17 - 24
Published: 18 Aug 2021
by Anna Reiffer, Jelle Kübler , Lars Briem, Martin Kagerbauer, Peter Vortisch from Institute for Transport Studies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Abstract: With the increased shift from in-store shopping to e-commerce, we can expect the share of delivery vehicles in cities to rise as well. This puts great pressure on cities and surrounding areas as emissions rise and space becomes scarce. Because the last leg of the delivery chain is so costly, there have been many studies on how the last-mile issue can be diminished. However, most studies only cover deliveries independently from the orders. This paper presents a modelling approach that integrates travel demand, package orders and subsequent deliveries within the same framework. One of the benefits of the integrated modelling approach is that the model can evaluate the agents’ locations at all times during the simulation. This allows us to model different states of delivery on a microscopic level. We have applied the model to Karlsruhe, Germany with a synthetic population of just over 300.000 agents. The results show that the model simulates both package orders and the subsequent delivery tours realistically. The model framework allows for detailed analysis of delivery states and success rates and can be used for scenario analysis of different delivery methods and changes in online shopping behaviour. read more... read less...
Keywords: last-mile, agent-based, travel demand, urban freight
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 09 - 16
Published: 13 Aug 2021
by Inhi Kim , Khaled Shaaban from Kongju National University, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah, United States, 84058
Abstract: Driving simulators are used for many applications including traffic safety. There are several types of driving simulators available for researchers and engineers. This study aims to compare fixed and moving driving simulators in assessing driving behaviors at railway crossings equipped with either typical stop signs or in-vehicle audio safety system. Data used in the comparison included vehicle speed profiles, compliance rates, and braking reaction times. It was found that compliance rates were similar whereas speed profiles and breaking reaction times were slightly different. As the results of the desktop simulator had previously been compared with those from the data collected in the field, the comparison of results between the two simulators reported here can serve as a blueprint to calibrate the use of moving simulators. In summary, the different properties of the simulator can lead drivers to react to warnings differently. read more... read less...
Keywords: Braking reaction time, compliance rates, fixed driving simulator, moving driving simulator, speed profiles
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 01 - 08
Published: 07 Aug 2021
by Namwoo Kim, Yoonjin Yoon from Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 Korea
Abstract: In a new era of mobility where the transportation of persons or goods via flying vehicles over urban areas has garnered great interest in its application in urban space. With the anticipated utilization of sUAS in urban airspace, a multi-dimensional understanding of urban space is essential. As a first step to assess the feasibility of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) in urban areas, we conduct regionalization and correspondence analysis in highly urbanized areas – San Francisco, CA and Manhattan, NY – by incorporating population dataset and urban 3D airspace to delineate the regional boundaries. Regionalization is carried out using graph-based clustering technique called SKATER (Spatial ‘K’luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal) to group the regions having similar characteristics and address the compound effect of both population and spatial information. By classifying the regions into five categories through correspondence analysis, the operational and economic feasibility of each region is evaluated. The results provide the region maps of each city with the most and least attractive regions for UAM application with the temporal notion, whether the clusters are daytime-intensive or nighttime-intensive areas. The outcomes have several unique information that can benefit drone delivery target area identification, landing location identification, demand prediction. Our approach can contribute to providing a useful basis for management for UAM in urban areas as well as the process of regulating airspace use. read more... read less...
Keywords: Urban Air Mobility, UAS Traffic Management, Geodemographic Analysis, Spatial Clustering
JUSPN, volume-15 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 43 - 53
Published: 18 Aug 2021
by Alfredo Cuzzocrea, Carson Leung, S. Sourav, Bryan H. Wodi from iDEA Lab, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy & LORIA, Nancy, France - Department of Computer Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Abstract: Cloud providers offer storage as a service to the data owners to store emails and files on the cloud server. However, sensitive data should be encrypted before storing on the cloud server to avoid privacy concerns. With the encryption of documents, it is not feasible for data owners to retrieve documents based on keyword search as they can do with plain text documents. Hence, it is desirable to perform a multi-keyword search on encrypted data. To achieve this goal, we present a fast privacy-preserving model for keyword search on encrypted outsourced data in this paper. Specifically, the model first performs a keyword search on encrypted data and checks its support for dynamic operations. Based on keyword search results, it then sorts all the relevant data documents using the number of keywords matched for a given query. To evaluate its performance of our model, we applied the standard metrics like precision and recall. The results show the effectiveness of our privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted outsourced data. read more... read less...
Keywords: Big Data, Big Data Privacy, Big Data Security, Encryption, Privacy-Preserving Keyword Search, PrivacyPreserving Information Retrieval
JUSPN, volume-15 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 33 - 41
Published: 24 Dec 2021
by Wendy Osborn from Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, T1K 3M4
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of query processing in spatial data streams is explored, with a focus on the spatial join operation. Although the spatial join has been utilized in many proposed centralized and distributed query processing strategies, for its application to spatial data streams the spatial join operation has received very little attention. One identified limitation with existing strategies is that a bounded region of space (i.e., spatial extent) from which the spatial objects are generated needs to be known in advance. However, this information may not be available. Therefore, two strategies for spatial data stream join processing are proposed where the spatial extent of the spatial object stream is not required to be known in advance. Both strategies estimate the common region that is shared by two or more spatial data streams in order to process the spatial join. An evaluation of both strategies includes a comparison with a recently proposed approach in which the spatial extent of the data set is known. Experimental results show that one of the strategies performs very well at estimating the common region of space using only incoming objects on the spatial data streams. Other limitations of this work are also identified. read more... read less...
Keywords: spatial data streams, stream query processing, spatial join, performance
JUSPN, volume-15 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 25 - 31
Published: 21 Dec 2021
by Karim Haricha, Azeddine Khiat, Yassine Issaoui, Ayoub Bahnasse, Hassan Ouajji from Lab SSDIA, University Hassan II of Casablanca, Morocco, ENSAM Casablanca, University Hassan II of Casablanca, Morocco
Abstract: Production activities is generating a large amount of data in different types (i.e., text, images), that is not well exploited. This data can be translated easily to knowledge that can help to predict all the risks that can impact the business, solve problems, promote efficiency of the manufacture to the maximum, make the production more flexible and improving the quality of making smart decisions, however, implementing the Smart Manufacturing(SM) concept provides this opportunity supported by the new generation of the technologies. Internet Of Things (IoT) for more connectivity and getting data in real time, Big Data to store the huge volume of data and Deep Learning algorithms(DL) to learn from the historical and real time data to generate knowledge, that can be used, predict all the risks, problem solving, and better decision-making. In this paper, we will introduce SM and the main technologies to success the implementation, the benefits, and the challenges. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart Manufacturing (SM), Industry 4.0, Internet Of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL).
JUSPN, volume-15 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 19 - 24
Published: 19 Dec 2021
by Vishv Patel, Devansh Shah, Nishant Doshi from Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, India, Gujarat-382426
Abstract: The large deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) is empowering Smart City tasks and activities everywhere throughout the world. Items utilized in day-by-day life are outfitted with IoT devices and sensors to make them interconnected and connected with the internet. Internet of Things (IoT) is a vital piece of a smart city that tremendously impact on all the city sectors, for example, governance, healthcare, mobility, pollution, and transportation. This all connected IoT devices will make the cities smart. As different smart city activities and undertakings have been propelled in recent times, we have seen the benefits as well as the risks. This paper depicts the primary challenges and weaknesses of applying IoT innovations dependent on smart city standards. Moreover, this paper points the outline of the technologies and applications of the smart cities. read more... read less...
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Cities, IoT Devices and Sensors, Technologies of Smart Cities, Applications of Smart Cities
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 75 - 81
Published: 13 Nov 2017
by S. Praveen, J. Jegan from M.E (Construction Engineering & Management), Department of Civil Engineering, James College of Engineering & Technology, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, India, Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract: The authors explore transport and trade as two broad service sectors of inland water resources. An attempt is made to find out the key issues and challenges from this sector with the evolving understanding of Indian inland water transportation system. The paper explains the background of inland water transport sector in India along with the discussion of issues and challenges faced by the same. The authors state that co-operation and co-ordination between inter-state governments is a strategic element to expand the network of inland water transport system in India beyond state boundaries. Conclusively, the prospect of inland navigation looks promising, wherein issues on infrastructural gaps and institutional support are addressed suitably. read more... read less...
Keywords: Inland Water, Navigation, Transportation, National Waterways
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 67 - 74
Published: 18 Oct 2017
by Otu, Ubong Etop from Department Of Marine Biology, Akwa Ibom State University P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Nigeria
Abstract: Wastewater treatment is an efficient technique that increases the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for other productive uses, thereby, reducing the demand for freshwater resources, conservation of aquatic habitat, and sustainable utilization of water resources. Concerns for wastewater in Sweden began in the 1930s with only mechanical treatment but efficiently implemented in the 1960s as a result of significant eutrophication observed in open waters such as the Baltic Sea. Although prevailing wastewater treatment is fairly efficient, there is need to upgrade and improve existing treatment facilities (constructed in the 1970s) to mitigate potentially degradation of hygienic conditions due to the estimated increase in Swedish population. Thus, this paper will critically analyse prevailing treatment of wastewater in Sweden, the technology used and possible challenges encountered in the process. Small scale treatment of wastewater particularly practiced for dwellings not connected to municipal treatment plant will be discussed including sludge management in Sweden. The report further presented the significant issues including regulations, challenges, health hazards and constraints associated with wastewater treatment and reclamation. In addition, background information relating to potential technology to meet future wastewater treatment in Sweden were highlighted because current wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in the 1970s to provide services to Swedish population at that time. read more... read less...
Keywords: Water, Wastewater treatment, Grey wastewater, Sludge Management
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 59 - 65
Published: 04 Sep 2017
by Gathagu John Ng’ang’a, Mainya Johnstone Isiah, Oduor Brian Omondi, Khaldoon A. Mourad from Pan African University Institute for water and Energy Sciences, Tlemcen, Algeria, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, 22100
Abstract: Soil and water conservation measures are widely practiced in Kenya to tackle the degradation of the ecosystems and to improve land productivity. Local government and NGOs have developed programs and campaigns about soil and water conservation measures. The aim of this study is to assess the need for soil and water conservation measures in Thika- Chania catchment by conducting a household survey using QuickTap Survey software. A total of 200 respondents were successfully interviewed and results analyzed in SPSS program. GIS tools were also used to do a classification of slopes in the study area. Results indicate that more than 90% of the people in the catchment area are farmers. In the recent years, 50% of the respondents have noted a decline in the vegetation. During the rain seasons, the intensity of color in the local rivers due to sediments have been observed to increase by 75% of the respondent while 9% said there was no change. More than 70% of the respondents indicated that the water levels have been on the declining trend especially during the low flows. Terraces and grass strips were the common soil and water conservation measures although some of them were severely degraded. We concluded that there is an immediate need to implement soil and water conservation measures in the catchment to enhance and restore the optimum functioning of the ecosystems. Capacity building and frequent extension services are needed to increase awareness on the impacts of the respective conservation methods. Incentives programs need to be established to encourage more farmers to participate in conserving and protecting their lands from degradation. read more... read less...
Keywords: Baseline survey, soil and water conservation, capacity building, degradation.
SWES, volume-09 , Issue 1 (2017), PP 49 - 57
Published: 03 Apr 2017
by J. Nyika, G.N. Karuku, and R. N. Onwonga from Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya
Abstract: Water systems have complex component interactions necessitating development and evaluation of management amidst uncertainties of climate and constrained natural resources. Conceptual models such as WEAP when used are effective planning and management tools as they forecast future effects of resource use efficiency at sub-catchment level using existent hydrological and climate data thereby acting as corrective measure to poor resources management. This study aimed at using WEAP model to forecast demand and analyze scenarios on efficient water use in Mbagathi subcatchment. WEAP model schematic was set to develop current and reference scenarios. Parameters used to run WEAP model were a GIS map of the sub-catchment, climate data from Kenya Meteorological Department at Dagorretti Corner Station, hydrological and water demand data from WRMA databases. High population growth and prolonged drought were predicted to increase water demand while reuse though not practised, was found by the model to be the most effective approach to manage unmet demands as compared to reduced conveyance losses and increased reservoir capacity. The study concluded that water reuse through exploitation of wastewater could be a viable solution to Mbagathi sub-catchment's water problems. read more... read less...
Keywords: water problems, necessitating development, evaluation of management, climate and constrained natural resources