The International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Management (JTTM) is a high-quality scientific journal devoted to fields of Water and Environmental Sciences. It aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of water and environmental sciences or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
The Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board are very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading international journals in water and environmental sciences in the next few years. With the support of the International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability (IASKS), it is expected that a heavy resource to be channelled into the Journal to establish its international reputation. The Journal’s reputation will be enhanced from arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best papers of the conference proceedings. The journal is planning to publish 4 issues per year.
AIMS AND SCOPE
The International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Management (JTTM) is a refereed international journal to be of interest and use to all those concerned with research in various fields of, or closely related to water and environmental sciences disciplines. The International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Management aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of water and environmental sciences or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
The convergence of Internet of Things, Blockchain and Connected Vehicles: Conceptual Advantages and Disadvantages of a new Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 33 - 41
Published: 24 Mar 2021
by Vittorio Astarita, Vincenzo Pasquale Giofrè, Giuseppe Guido, Alessandro Vitale from Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
Abstract: This paper intends to explore the convergence of some technological innovations that could lead to new cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The technologies that might soon converge and lead to some new developments are: the Blockchain Technology (BT) concept, Internet of Things (IoT) and Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV). Advantages and disadvantages of the new concepts founding a new ITS system are discussed in this conceptual paper. Blockchain technology has been recently introduced and many research ideas have been presented for application in the transportation sector. In this paper, we discuss a system that is based on a dedicated blockchain, able to involve both drivers and city administrations in the adoption of promising and innovative technologies that will create cooperation among connected vehicles. The proposed blockchain-based system can allow city administrators to reward drivers when they are willing to share travel data. The system manages in a special way the creation of rewards which are assigned to drivers and institutions participating actively in the system. Moreover, the system allows keeping a complete track of all transactions and interactions between drivers and city management on a completely open and shared platform. The main idea is to combine connected vehicles with BT to promote Cooperative ITS use, a better use of infrastructures and a more sustainable eco-system of cryptocurrencies. A short description of BT is introduced to evidence energy problems of sustainability in the implementation of Proof of Work (PoW) that is adopted by many blockchains. read more... read less...
Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Floating Car Data (FCD), Blockchain Technology (BT), traffic management, connected and autonomous vehicles.
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 25 - 31
Published: 24 Mar 2021
by Peter Krammer, Marcel Kvassay, Ladislav Hluchý from Institute of Informatics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 845 07
Abstract: In this article, building on our previous work, we engage in spatiotemporal modelling of transport demand in the Montreal metropolitan area over the period of six years. We employ classical machine learning and regression models, which predict bike-sharing demand in the form of daily cumulative sums of bike trips for each considered docking station. Hourly estimates of demand are then determined by considering the statistical distribution of demand across individual hours of an average day. In order to capture seasonal and other regular variation of demand, longer-term distribution characteristics of bike trips, such as their average number falling on each day of the week, month of the year, etc., were also used as input attributes. We initially conjectured that weather would be an important source of irregular variation in bike-sharing demand, and subsequently included several available meteorological variables in our models. We validated our models by Hold-Out and 10-Fold Cross-Validation, with encouraging results. read more... read less...
Keywords: Machine learning, Data mining, Regression, Data distribution, Spatiotemporal data, Modelling, Regression tree
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 17 - 24
Published: 24 Mar 2021
by Nadia Slimani, Ilham Slimani, Nawal Sbiti, Mustapha Amghar from Computer Systems and Productivity Team, EMI, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco. Laboratory SmartICT, ENSAO, Mohammed I University, Oujda, Morocco.
Abstract: Traffic forecasting is a research topic debated by several researchers affiliated to a range of disciplines. It is becoming increasingly important given the growth of motorized vehicles on the one hand, and the scarcity of lands for new transportation infrastructure on the other. Indeed, in the context of smart cities and with the uninterrupted increase of the number of vehicles, road congestion is taking up an important place in research. In this context, the ability to provide highly accurate traffic forecasts is of fundamental importance to manage traffic, especially in the context of smart cities. This work is in line with this perspective and aims to solve this problem. The proposed methodology plans to forecast day-by-day traffic stream using three different models: the Multilayer Perceptron of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) and the Support Machine Regression (SMOreg). Using those three models, the forecast is realized based on a history of real traffic data recorded on a road section over 42 months. Besides, a recognized traffic manager in Morocco provides this dataset; the performance is then tested based on predefined criteria. From the experiment results, it is clear that the proposed ANN model achieves highest prediction accuracy with the lowest absolute relative error of 0.57%. read more... read less...
Keywords: Road traffic forecasting, artificial neural networks, MLP, statistical forecasting, SMOreg, SARIMA.
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 11 - 16
Published: 24 Mar 2021
by Uneb Gazder, Ashar Ahmed, Umaira Shahid from Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bahrain, Isa Town, Bahrain, 32038 , Department of Urban and Infrastructure Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, 75270
Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the relationships of accident severity using road environment and traveller characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression models were used in this study. The accident data was provided by Malaysian Research Institute of Road Safety (MIROS) for all accidents which occurred in Penang state during 2006-2011. It was observed that motorbikes were predominantly involved in these accidents, hence, it was decided to develop three separate models; one for the overall data, and others for accidents with and without motorbikes. Logistic regression models showed that commercial land use, road width and experience of driver are important factors that may increase severity of accidents. Shoulder width was found to decrease the severity of motorbike accidents. Commercial land use, road width and driver experience have more impact on motorbike accidents as compared to accidents of other vehicles. read more... read less...
Keywords: Traffic Accidents, Severity, Ordinal Logistic Regression, Motorbikes, Malaysia.
On the use of active mobile and stationary devices for detailed traffic data collection: A simulation-based evaluation
JTTM, volume-03 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 01 - 09
Published: 24 Mar 2021
by Johan Holmgren, Henrik Fredriksson, Mattias Dahl from Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Malmö, Sweden, 20506, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden, 37179
Abstract: The process of collecting traffic data is a key component to evaluate the current state of a transportation network and to analyze movements of vehicles. In this paper, we argue that both active stationary and mobile measurement devices should be taken into account for high-quality traffic data with sufficient geographic coverage. Stationary devices are able to collect data over time at certain locations in the network and mobile devices are able to gather data over large geographic regions. Hence, the two types of measurement devices have complementary properties and should be used in conjunction with each other in the data collection process. To evaluate the complementary characteristics of stationary and mobile devices for traffic data collection, we present a traffic simulation model, which we use to study the share of successfully identified vehicles when using both types of devices with varying identification rate. The results from our simulation study, using freight transport in southern Sweden, shows that the share of successfully identified vehicles can be significantly improved by using both stationary and mobile measurement devices. read more... read less...
Keywords: Traffic data collection, stationary devices, mobile devices, traffic simulation
JTTM, volume-02 , Issue 1 (2020), PP 15 - 21
Published: 09 Nov 2020
by Uneb Gazdera from Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bahrain, Isa Town, Bahrain
Abstract: Walking is considered to be one of the sustainable modes of transportation which reduces traffic demand leading to lower levels of pollution and congestion. It has resulted in improved physical and psychological health of individuals. This study focuses on studying walking behavior of travelers in Bahrain. Walking data was collected through Moves mobile application while a questionnaire survey was conducted to find the characteristics of the participants. Walking distance per day was found to be approximately 400m on average which is insufficient to have any significant impact on health. There was no significant change in walking behavior between day and night timings. Walking behavior was found to be related to familiarity with location, financial status and family structure of the participants. Personal characteristics (age, gender, etc.) and perception of the participant did not have any significant impact on walking behavior. It is recommended to increase awareness related to walking and improve pedestrian facilities in all areas of Bahrain to promote walking. read more... read less...
Keywords: Walking, Moves smartphone app, Bahrain, travel behavior
Design, Implementation and Testing of a New Multi-Sensor Mobile Device as a Tool for Cycling Data Collection in Highly Congested Urban Streets
JTTM, volume-02 , Issue 1 (2020), PP 07 - 13
Published: 09 Nov 2020
by Suzana Duran Bernardes, Abdullah Kurkcu, Kaan Ozbay from Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, C2SMART, New York University, Brooklyn, NY, USA,11201, Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP), C2SMART, New York University, Brooklyn, NY, USA, 11201
Abstract: The number of bicycle riders in New York City (NYC) has been increasing steadily in the past few years. These numbers include private and shared bicycles. The NYC bicycle network has been expanded to accommodate the needs of the increasing number of riders. Although the new infrastructure has reduced the number of cyclists killed or seriously injured (KSI) in some areas, in other areas similar improvements were not observed. A data-driven approach to study the possible effects of this type of infrastructure inconsistency on the variation of the number of bicycle crashes from one region to another in the city is the primary motivation of this paper. A highly portable and inexpensive sensing device for measuring the distance between a bicycle and lateral objects is designed and developed from scratch. The developed mobile sensing device can also map bicycle trajectories to highlight critical segments where the safe distance from passing vehicles is not respected. This mobile device is powered by a portable power source and it is comprised of two ultrasonic sensors, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and a real-time clock (RTC). The sensor is secured inside a custom design 3D printed case. The case can be easily attached to any bicycle including shared bikes for testing. The final prototype is entirely functional and used to collect sample data to demonstrate its effectiveness to address safety-related problems mentioned above. Finally, a dashboard is created to display collected key information. This key information can be used by researches and agencies for a better understanding of the factors contributing to the safety of bicycle routes. read more... read less...
Keywords: Ultrasonic sensor, Bicycle safety, Traffic, IoT
JTTM, volume-02 , Issue 1 (2020), PP 01 - 05
Published: 09 Nov 2020
by Afzal Ahmed , Mir Shabbar Ali , Toor Ansari , Uresha Mansoor from Department of Urban & Infrastructure Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, Department of Civil Engineering, Indus University, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: This research calibrates Cell Transmission Model (CTM) for heterogeneous and non-lane disciplined traffic, as observed in Pakistan and some other developing countries by constructing a flow-density fundamental traffic flow diagram. Currently, most of the traffic simulation packages used for such heterogonous and non-lane-disciplined traffic are not calibrated for local traffic conditions and most of the traffic flow models are developed for comparatively less heterogeneous and lane-disciplined traffic. The flow-density fundamental traffic flow diagram is developed based on extensive field data collected from Karachi, Pakistan. The calibrated CTM model is validated by using actual data from another road and it was concluded that CTM is capable of modelling heterogeneous and non-lane disciplined traffic and performed very reasonably. The calibrated CTM will be a useful input for the application of traffic simulation and optimization packages such as TRANSYT, SIGMIX, DISCO, and CTMSIM. read more... read less...
Keywords: Calibration, Cell Transmission Model, Macroscopic Traffic Flow Model, Heterogeneous Traffic, FlowDensity Relation.
Effect of Sidewalk Vendors on Pedestrian Walking Speed and Lateral Position: A Study in Addis Ababa, Ethopia
JTTM, volume-01 , Issue 2 (2019), PP 27 - 34
Published: 02 Jan 2020
by Hagos Gebremedhin Kibret, Muhammad Adnan, Ansar-ul-Haque Yasar from Hasselt University Department of Transportation Science, Diepenbeek, Belgium, 3590 Transportation research institute (IMOB), Hasselt university, Diepenbeek, Belgium, 3590
Abstract: Street vendors use sidewalks to display goods and services. The reduction of sidewalk space by sidewalk vending activity forces pedestrians to take evasive action by changing walking speed and/or direction. Based on previous qualitative studies pedestrian evasive movements are related to pedestrian level of service and sharing carriageways. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of typical sidewalk vendor on average pedestrian walking speed and lateral position. The study used a field observation followed by a controlled walking experiment to study pedestrian behavior in the presence of typical sidewalk vendor. A univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) of pedestrian trajectories, extracted from a walking experiment, showed that the average pedestrian lateral position and walking speed were significantly affected by the presence of a sidewalk vendor, pedestrian flow rate and the interaction effect of the two (p read more... read less...
Keywords: Sidewalk vendors, Pedestrian trajectories, Walking speed, Lateral position
JTTM, volume-01 , Issue 2 (2019), PP 19 - 25
Published: 02 Jan 2020
by Syeda Amena, Syed Fazal Abbas Baquer from Graduate Student Transportation Sciences, UHasselt- Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium, 3590, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, DHA Suffa University, Karachi, Pakistan, 75950
Abstract: Motorcycles is a dominant transport model in many Asian Cities. Similar is the case with Karachi, where motorcycles constitutes approximately 52% of the overall passenger transport. Although a motorcycle provides temporary relief in terms of low fuel price, ownership of a vehicle and on top of all an easy commuting option to its owners, it has adversely affected the whole (transportation) system including its users. This paper analyzes various governmental policies that led to the enormous increase in motorcycles and its effects on street crime, Traffic Violation and Traffic Congestion. User attitudes towards opting motorcycles, public transport and environment are also discussed in this paper whill shall be helpful in conducting future studies in this regard. read more... read less...
Keywords: Motorcycle, Government Policies, Karachi, BRT
JTTM, volume-01 , Issue 2 (2019), PP 11 - 17
Published: 02 Jan 2020
by Ashar Ahmed, Ahmad Farhan Mohd Sadullah, Ahmad Shukri Yahya from NED University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Urban and Infrastructure Engineering, Karachi 75270, Pakistan, Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Civil Engineering, Pulau Pinang 14300, Malaysia
Abstract: Accident Reporting Form (ARF) is the basic building block of an Accident Database. Incorrect and incomplete forms result into the formation of erroneous database which contains partial or no essential information required for the statistical analysis of accident data. Policies made on the basis of the results of such databases will have little or no effect on the improvement of safety of roadway facilities. In most countries filling of the ARF is the responsibility of Police/Investigating officers. Due to lack of interest, all the details are not recorded by them. Thus, it is very important to investigate the type of attributes and their respective items filled most. The objective of this study is to evaluate the attributes given most importance by the person in charge of filling the ARF and the items most neglected. The probable reasons for the complete/incomplete recording of the details of certain items were also examined. For this study a total of 642 forms were obtained from the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) for evaluation. Each form contained 91 attributes, as per number given in the accident reporting form known as POL 27. The items were divided with respect to driver, passenger, vehicle, pedestrian, location, road environment, road information and additional information. The fill-ability for each item was estimated in terms of percent filled. The items were evaluated in terms of least and most filled and the probable reason for the complete/incomplete filling of each item was then investigated. It was found that items related to location were most neglected. The second most incomplete items were associated with the vehicle and the driver. While the attributes related to the road and the environment were found to be the most filled. The probable reason for lack of fill-ability of location related items was their placement in inappropriate sections. The important finding of this study is the high number of items in the POL 27 which makes it difficult for the officer to fill the form completely and is the major cause of reduced fill-ability. read more... read less...
Keywords: Accident Reporting Form, Investigating Officer, Crash Location, Road Environment
Exploring the Transferability of FEATHERS – An Activity Based Travel Demand Model – For Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
JTTM, volume-01 , Issue 2 (2019), PP 01 - 09
Published: 02 Jan 2020
by Hoang Thuy Linh, Muhammad Adnan , Wim Ectors, Bruno Kochan, Tom Bellemens, Vu Anh Tuan from UHasselt – Universiteit Hasselt, Transportation Research Institute (IMOB), Agoralaan, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thoung, Dong Da, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Vietnamese-German Transportation Research Centre, Vietnamese-German University, Bin Duong new city, Vietnam
Abstract: This paper presents descriptive analyses to investigate the transferability of FEATHERS, an activity-based travel demand model developed for Flanders (Belgium), to a region in a developed country to Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), a metropolitan area of a developing country, using personal and household travel survey data. The transferability was tested by using indicators which represent individuals’ activity and travel behaviors. The results confirm the transferability of the FEATHERS modelling structure to Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), yet all sub-models require recalibration due to the different cultural settings between the two study areas. The differences in transport mode options, land use patterns and individuals’ location choice preferences make transport mode and location choice the least transferable models. read more... read less...
Keywords: transferability, activity based travel demand model, action space, schedule pattern