IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 95 - 101
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by Essam E. Khalil and Sherif M. Gomaa from Mechanical Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo11321, Egypt
Abstract: Fire propagation and control in underground car parks are of an important safety issue. This paper investigates the effect of the jet fan system on the smoke clearance in an underground car park using CFD simulations. Two fire locations were considered under a steady state fire source of 4 MW. The consideration of the fire zone was also studied. The underground car park used in this study is 5,290 m2 in area with a height of 3.7 m. A comparison between CFD results and analytical correlations for the fire modeling was made. The ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 software was used for all simulations. The results showed that the temperature is limited to the zone, where the fire is detected, and it is within an accepted range. The CO2 mass fraction was presented and showed how the jet fans contribute in reducing the smoke density and hence improve the visibility. It was found that dividing the car park into zones is highly recommended and should be taken in the design of the jet fan system. read more... read less...
Keywords: CFD, Fire Simulation, Dynamic Simulation, Car Parks
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 89 - 93
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by S.M. Henkanatte-Gedera, T. Selvaratnam, N. Nirmalakhandan from Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Abstract: Meeting the demand for food, energy, and water to sustain the worldwide growth of urban population is a major challenge. Several recent reports have concluded that one approach to overcome this challenge is to recover and recycle resources within the food-energywater (FEW) nexus in urban settings. Urban wastewaters (UWW) are now being recognized as a resource, rich in nutrients and energy, rather than a waste stream that has to be treated and disposed of at the expense of significant energy input and associated environmental emissions. Reclaiming reusable water, nutrients, and energy from UWWs can contribute to autarky of FEW nexus and render the wastewater management process sustainable and potentially profitable. This paper presents a novel approach to treat UWW with the potential for high recovery of energy, nutrients, and water from UWW for use in food crop production. This approach entails cultivation of energy-rich algal biomass in primary-settled UWW followed by extraction of biocrude and nutrients from the algal biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction. A fraction of the recovered nutrients is recycled to boost biomass production while the rest can be stockpiled for use as fertilizer. Results from a pilot scale field study conducted at a local wastewater treatment plant confirmed that the algal system can achieve >80% removal of organic carbon, ammoniacal-nitrogen, and phosphates in UWW, meeting the respective discharge standards in a single step, with a batch process time of three days. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wastewater, energy recovery, nutrient recovery, algal cultivation
Effect Weibull Distribution Parameters Calculating Methods on Energy Output of a Wind Turbine: A Study Case
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 163 - 173
Published: 15 Jan 2017
by Abeer Qawasmi, Suhil Kiwan from Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Abstract: Wind energy is an important renewable energy source. It is considered as one of the most significant, freely available and alternative source of energy distributed throughout the world. The estimation of the potential of wind energy in a site plays a vital role in estimating the energy output of the wind turbines and, therefore, affects economics and decision making. Site characterization can be expressed mathematically in different methods. Weibull distribution is one of the most common methods used to represent wind energy potential in a site. In this study, wind speed data was collected for year 2013, from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013. The data collected for three different heights (20 m, 40 m and 60 m) from measurement station installed at Jordan University of science and technology campus area (Irbid, Jordan). The data recorded based on ten minutes averages using a data logger. Yearly shape factor (k) and scale factor (c), of Weibull distribution for the wind speed are calculated for each height using graphical and standard deviation methods. Both arithmetic and cubic mean wind speeds were used to estimate Weibull parameters. Then, the energy outputs of Vestas V80-2.0 wind turbine installed at the site were estimated using calculated Weibull parameters and actual estimation. The results are compared to check the accuracy of methods of estimating Weibull parameters. A new method of characterizing the site is proposed and tested. The method is based on Weibull distribution but the specific power density is the main variable of the distribution function. The results showed that this method is the most accurate method among all tested methods. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wind power, Weibull distribution, Irbid-Jordan
Analyzing Sustainable Development Impacts of Large-Scale Clean Development Mechanism Projects on Host Countries
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 153 - 161
Published: 10 Jan 2017
by Sultan Al Awadhi, Zeina Abbas, Toufic Mezher from Institute Center for Smart and Sustainable Systems (iSmart) Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: The objective of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is to assist developed countries in achieving their emission reduction target levels and to contribute to the sustainable development of host countries. A Gold Standard (GS) rating system was developed to assess the value of emission certificates of existing CDM projects. In this paper, a framework was developed to analyze the true impact of CDM projects on host countries economically, socially, and environmentally. In addition, a comparative analysis is conducted between GS certified and non-certified projects to see which projects can be categorized as GS through Applied Statistical Inference techniques. Results show that the major impact of CDM projects was mainly related to job creation and reducing CO¬¬¬2 emissions. In addition, statistical analyses show that the sustainability filter in GS has many flaws and should be re-evaluated in order to be used as a rating system for CDM projects. read more... read less...
Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Gold Standard, sustainability, sustainable development.
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 143 - 151
Published: 08 Jan 2017
by M. A. Hamdan, K. K. Kardasi from The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: The performance of PV (photovoltaic) module is strongly dependent on its operating temperature. Most of the energy absorbed by the panel is converted to heat which is normally lost and provides no value. This work investigated experimentally the PV performance through using three separated PV panels. Three identical photovoltaic (PV) panels have been installed side by side to investigate the effect of cooling on the PV panels performance, one of them is used as a baseline ; the second is cooled using pure water; while the third is cooled using nanofluids. Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and Copper Oxide (CuO ) nanoparticles were added to the pure water to form the nanofluid, each one with different concentration in order to find the optimum concentration of Al2O3 and CuO. Meteorological data was measured using a weather station. Also, the temperature of the cooling fluids together with the backside temperature of the PV Panels was recorded. It was found that an increase in the efficiency of the panel of 2% was obtained when 0.4 % Al2O3 by weight was mixed with the pure water. This increase in efficiency was 2.34% when 0.6 % CuO. read more... read less...
Keywords: PV Cooling, Nanofluid, Solar Energy
A Comparative of Energy Efficiency of Luminaries for General Lighting for a Residential Building: CFL vs LED
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 125 - 129
Published: 08 Jan 2017
by Maysa Sarsour, Ahmed Al-Salaymeh from Electrical Engineer, Arabtech Jardaneh Group, Amman, Jordan Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Abstract: This paper presents comparison study between two types of lighting technologies; the compact fluorescent lighting (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED) luminaries for home general lighting usage. This study includes all parts of the luminaries that include the lamp itself and the housing. An experimental test was done to verify the luminance produced by the two technologies. The generated energy of the two technologies was compared by using DIALUX software under the same lumen flux. Furthermore, the associated cost is also evaluated over the stipulated operational period which shows the most advantages of the LED technology over CFL although the initial capital cost for LED is 22% higher than CFL. However, this increment can be equalized by a short payback period of nearly 18 months for the case. This comparison shows that the LED luminaries have the advantages of a significant reduction in the environmental impact, i.e. reduction of 41-50% of greenhouse gas emission and energy demand, mainly due to lower energy utilization and substantial reduction of 60-78% in electrical consumption. read more... read less...
Keywords: LED; CFL; DIALUX; Energy Efficiency
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 119 - 124
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by Mohammad Alsmadi, Yousef Dababneh, Ahmed Al-Salaymeh from Performance and Efficiency Department, KEPCO KPS Plant Services and engineering Co. Ltd, Amman, Jordan Renewable Energy Department, Wathba Investment Co., Amman, Jordan Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the utilization of PV feeding system for auxiliary energy demand in the conventional power plants. A 573 MW tri-fuel power plant in Jordan IPP3 the largest internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant in the world is the case study to evaluate the energy economy aspects of PV feeding system and its effects on the monthly payments for this energy. All relevant computations will be performed in order to end up with reasonable, feasible and applicable results. The auxiliary energy demand of this power plant while no operation is covered from the national transmission grid which results in around 48 MWh imported energy on daily basis taking in mind no operation case. Therefore, such PV system will have a noticeable impact over the productivity of the whole plant as well as raising the money spent for fuel upon the reduction of the heat rate. The PV system is sized to have a capacity of 2 MWp planned to be utilized during the day time. Considering the imported energy benefit, the corresponding pay-back period will through the 5th year where is expected to be accomplished during the 7th year when it comes to the heat rate improvement. The prominent fact to be mentioned here that the pay-back period upon either imported energy benefit of heat rate improvement is calculated separately. read more... read less...
Keywords: Energy, Auxiliary, Imported.
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 109 - 118
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by B.R. Qawasmeh, A. Al-Salaymeh, Ma’en S. Sari, Nadeen Elian, Nadeen Zahran from Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan Mechanical and Maintenance Engineering Department, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan
Abstract: The energy rating for residential buildings in Amman is studied and a rating scale is suggested. The annual cooling and heating energy requirement has been calculated according to Jordanian codes, using Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) and degree-days method (DD). The energy rating which provides the necessary information about the energy performance of the residential buildings has been assessed. The assessment is based on the thermal envelope. The annual energy loads are calculated for different cases according to different parameters such as glass layers for windows, and direction of the apartment. Two main cases are considered in constructing the energy rating scale; the cases are two apartments (one directed to the right while the other is directed to the left) located in Marka, Amman, Jordan. The two apartments have the same area of 110 m2 and in the same building's floor. The different orientations have been considered for the apartments of 90, 180 and 270 degree clock wise rotations. Then, the heating and cooling loads are calculated for all orientations using single glass and double glass. The annual cooling and heating energy without rotation using degree-days method (DD): for case one are 123.8 kWh/m² (for single glass) and 112.8 kWh/m² (for double glass), and for case 2 are 125.9 kWh/m² (for single glass) and 114.6 kWh/m² (for double glass) at Tb=18.3 Ԩ for heating and Tb =24 Ԩ for cooling. These results are in good agreement with the HAP results. Finally, an energy rating scale was suggested for residential buildings in Amman. read more... read less...
Keywords: Energy Rating, Degree-Days Method, Simulation
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 2 (2017), PP 103 - 108
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by M. A. Hamdan, E. Abdelhafez, and O. Ghnaimat from University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan The Royal Scientific Society, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: In this study, three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models (Feedforward network, Elman, and Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX)) were used to predict hourly solar radiation in Amman, Jordan. The three models were constructed and tested by using MATLAB software. Meteorological data for the years from 2000 to 2010 were used to train the ANN while the yearly data of 2011 was used to test it. It was found that ANN technique may be used to estimate the hourly solar radiation with an excellent accuracy, and the coefficient of determination of Elman, feedforward and NARX models were found to be 0.97353, 0.97376, and 0.99017, respectively. The obtained results showed that NARX model has the best ability to predict the required solar data, while Elman and feedforward models have the lowest ability to predict it. read more... read less...
Keywords: Solar Radiation, Artificial Neural Networks, Prediction
Techno-Economic Study of PV Powered Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant in the Jordan Valley
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 1 (2017), PP 83 - 88
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by Ahmad Alsarayreh, Mohammad Majdalawi, Ramchandra Bhandari from Independent researcher in Renewable Energy, Amman, Jordan University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan TH Köln – University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, Germany
Abstract: Jordan is one of the ten most water scarce countries in the world. In 2014, the share of water per capita per year in Jordan is 120 Cubic Meters (m3 ). The water deficit is estimated to be 160 Million Cubic Meter (MCM) in 2015. This deficit is projected to grow up to 490 MCM by 2025. This study discusses the possibility of using solar energy for brackish water desalination in Jordan Valley (JV) to reduce the pressure on the fresh water and the conventional energy consumption associated with the desalination process, as well as, to reduce Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions associated with the consumption of energy produced from fossil fuels. Photovoltaic (PV) powered brackish water reverse osmosis desalination technology (RO) has been investigated in this study. The PV system has designed using PVSOL software. The economic feasibility study of use PV system has been done using Average Incremental Cost of Water (AICOW), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) in several scenarios. The results of the analysis showed that using PV systems for brackish water desalination for a small size single plant at current electricity tariff is not economically feasible for the farmers. But it is feasible for a larger size plant for ten farms or more, or with financial support from the government. The feasibility results showed that using PV systems for brackish water desalination for the government side are economically feasible even for a small size plant. read more... read less...
Keywords: Desalination, Brackishwater, Solar Energy, Photovoltaic.
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 1 (2017), PP 71 - 82
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by A. Al Anzi and L. Al-Dihani and A. Al-Ragam from College of Architecture, Kuwait University, Kuwait Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Abstract: The paper focuses on diagnosing the Double Skin Facade (DSF) of the main Kuwait Municipality building complex based on occupants’ perception of different historical and environmental preferences. The case study building complex has a remarkable façade that represents the modern architectural and democratic movement of Kuwait. Unfortunately, due to improper maintenance and operation, the significance and benefits of the DSF in particular have not been utilized in this complex. The objective of this paper is to diagnose the DSF benefits of this building envelope and discuss the feasibility of renovation to improve its sustainable use and operation. Such sustainability includes daylighting, thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), and acoustic performances. To reach this objective, the study will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative research methods, such as site visits, interviews, questionnaire and literature review. It is found that responses of occupants are positive on the advantages and rehabilitations of the DSF of the complex. And based on the findings of this study, it is also believed by the authors that the preservation of its DSF is a more sustainable choice in this green architectural era. This is so due to its great occupants’ performance expectations and energy savings opportunities. read more... read less...
Keywords: Double Skin Facade, Facade Rehabilitation, Multiple-Skin Façade, Sustainable façade, thermal comfort
IJTEE, volume-14 , Issue 1 (2017), PP 59 - 69
Published: 07 Jan 2017
by B. R. Qawasmeh, A. Al-Salaymeh, A. Swaity, A. Mosleh, S. Boshmaf from Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Abstract: The study aims to establish a comparison between different cars models (conventional and hybrid) from various manufacturers sold in the local Jordanian market. The aspects covered are the main performance parameters such as the output horsepower, hybrid system type used and the economic parameters including net present prices, miles travelled per gallon (MPG) and the payback period. In addition, we study the environmental aspect such as CO2 gas emissions. Moreover, some special aspects related to hybrid cars are studied to give better view of the new hybrid technology found in the world nowadays .Here, we collect data from previous studies and from the manufacturers’ data sheets as well as from local and international car experts and dealers. Then the data is arranged to deliver a clear view about the hybrid technologies. The study serves as a car selection guide, which contains the main parameters needed for all users and a technical review for researchers interested in the automotive industry of conventional/hybrid cars. As a result, the new hybrid car technology can be categorized into three main types (series, parallel, or series/parallel system), and into four main levels (Micro, Mild, Full, and Plug in). Toyota’s HSD (hybrid Synergy Drive also used by Nissan and Lexus) is a series/parallel hybrid system, while Honda’s IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) system and Hyundai hybrid system are from parallel hybrid type. Economically, over the full models range, Toyota Prius has the largest MPG of 51, which is constant throughout models range, thus having the highest annual saving of 421 JOD/year. However, Honda Insight and Honda Civic hybrid have lower payback periods due to their lower initial prices. Environmentally, Toyota Prius has the least CO2 emissions of 178 g/mile; also, HEVs have lower CO2 emissions than their conventional counterparts over all the models. Comparing HEVs’ output power to their conventional counterparts with the same engine size, HEVs have same or better output power. In summary, HEVs are recommended to replace the conventional cars, due to their ability of reducing CO2 emissions, fuel consumptions, and offering slightly better performance. read more... read less...
Keywords: Hybrid Cars, Conventional Cars, CO2 emission