Three Dimensional Transient Explicit Finite Difference Heat Transfer Modeling of Billet Transport
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 95 - 100
Published: 06 Feb 2013
by Satish Kumar Dube, P. Srinivasan from Mechanical Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, India, 333031
Abstract: In steel industries, the billets are heated in a reheat furnace. The billets coming out from the reheat furnace are transported to the rolling mill. Prediction of billet temperature during transport is vital for several reasons, like energy optimization studies, process simulation, roll force calculation, and quality of the final product. Inadequate temperature measuring instruments demand a suitable model for billet temperature predictions. In the present work, conduction heat transfer within the billet is modeled using the explicit finite difference method. To solve three dimensional transient discretization equations, code has been developed and implemented in MATLAB ® . Validation of the proposed numerical model has been done using analytical solutions. The model predictions of billet temperature are shown to be in good concurrence with analytical results. The model is capable of predicting temperature distribution within the billet. The model is used to examine the effect of billet transport velocity on the temperature field of the billet. The objective of this work to apply a simple simulation technique to a high-temperature industrial process for temperature field measurements. This type of stimulation may be useful for temperature predictions, design, and study of new or existing transport systems for hot billet transport. read more... read less...
Keywords: : Transient, Finite Difference, Explicit, Billet, Heat transfer, Transport
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Solid Waste-Based Clay Composites Utilized as Insulating Materials
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 89 - 94
Published: 31 Jan 2013
by Abdul Hai Alami from Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE, 27272
Abstract: The use of masonry clay bricks with different filler materials and dispersed solid phases is investigated. Masonry bricks from two regions in the Middle East, famous for buildings made of clay composites are investigated and compared in order to better enhance the mechanical and thermal properties of the bricks used in terms of strength and insulation. Each region has specific clay type, different filler materials and also different materials suitable to be solid dispersed phases. For example, While Jordan has an abundant supply of olive husk and straw as it has pronounced foliage, the UAE has scarce water resources, and hence palm trees are of the few plant species that can endure in such an environment. It has been concluded that the clay-straw-husk has better thermal insulating properties, but less toughness (area under the stress-strain diagram) than the clay-fronds-pits variety of clay composites. read more... read less...
Keywords: Masonry clay composite, date pits aggregate, olive husk, green insulation materials
Techno-Economic Study of Copper Removal from Acid Mine Drainage by Ion-Exchange Technique
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 83 - 88
Published: 19 Jan 2013
by R.W. Gaikwad, R.S. Sapkal and V.S. Sapkal from Department of Chemical Engineering, Pravara Rural Engineering College, Loni, Dist Ahmednagar (MS)-413736, India Department of Chemical Technology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, India
Abstract: Economic feasibility has been studied for removal of copper from acid mine drainage wastewater by ion exchange. Ion exchange method has been used for removal of copper from industrial wastewaters. Experiments were conducted using packed bed column. The present study was carried out for solutions with concentrations of 100 mg/lit to 200 mg/lit and pH values of 3 to 6, using Indion 730, strong acid cation exchange resin. Under the present operating conditions considered, the strong acid type resin was found to bring down initial copper content by almost 46-56 % and at pH 5, 60% of copper removal for 200 mg/lit of initial concentration was found. The techno economic feasibility was then studied and the rate of return found to be 21% which is economically viable. read more... read less...
Keywords: copper, AMD, ion-exchange, economics
Demonstrating of a Standing Wave - Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 75 - 81
Published: 19 Jan 2013
by Ali Alahmera, Mohammed Omar, Mohammad Al Zubi from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan, P. O. Box 179, 66110 Automotive Engineering Department, Clemson University, International Center for Automotive Research CU-ICAR, Greenville, SC 29607, USA Department of Engineering Systems & Management, Masdar Institute of Science & Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: This manuscript begins with a full description of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator (TAR) technology followed an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a TAR. The authors developed and tested a standing wave thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR) to study the effects of stack plate thickness, load and stack temperature variation on TAR performance. They then used a CFD simulation to simulate the performance of the TAR, particularly the temperature and velocity within. read more... read less...
Keywords: Thermoacoustic, Refrigerator, Standing wave, Stack
Effect of Blended Fuels on Specific Fuel Consumption at Varying Engine Loads Using CVCRM Engine Test Rig
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 69 - 74
Published: 18 Jan 2013
by D.R. Prajapati , Gurpreet Singh from Department of Mechanical Engineering, PEC University of Technology (formerly Punjab Engineering College), Chandigarh-160012, India, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara (Pb)-144402, India
Abstract: Vegetable oils are liquid fuels from renewable sources they do not over-burden the environment with emissions. Vegetable oils have potential for making marginal land productive by their property of nitrogen fixation in the soil. Their production requires lesser energy input in production. They have higher energy content than other energy crops like alcohol. Vegetable oils can be successfully used in CI engine, through engine modifications and fuel modifications because vegetable oil in its raw form cannot be used in engines. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) has been computed for various blends of soyabean and mustered oils with petrol at different engine loads in computerized variable compression ratio multi-fuel (CVCRM) engine test rig. It is concluded that out of the two mustard oil blends, 20-PRM shows the lowest specific fuel consumption at the engine loads of 2.5 Kg and 5.0 Kg, whereas 15-PRM shows the lowest specific fuel consumption (SCF) at the engine loads of 7.5 Kg. The experiments also show that the lowest specific fuel consumption occurs at the engine load of 7.5 Kg with using the blend of 15-PRM out of all the engine loads considered in the study. read more... read less...
Keywords: Specific fuel consumption, Bio-fuels, Soybean-mustard oil blends, CVCRM engine test rig, engine loads
Performance Analysis of Natural-Refrigerants-Based Vortex Tube Expansion Refrigeration Cycles
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 61 - 68
Published: 06 Nov 2013
by Jahar Sarkar from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (B.H.U.), Varanasi, UP-221005, India
Abstract: The energetic analyses and comparison of three natural refrigerants, ammonia, propane and isobutane based vapour compression refrigeration cycles are presented in this article using a vortex tube as an expansion device. A simple thermodynamic model has been used for analyses of two vortex tube expansion refrigeration cycle layouts based on the Maurer model (1999) and the Keller model (1997). Effects of various operating and design parameters of the COP improvement using vortex tube instead of expansion valve are presented. Results show that the COP improvement over basic expansion cycle increases with increase in cycle temperature lift for both cycle layouts. The COP improvement of CYC1 can be realized for certain operating temperature combinations. Effects of design parameters on the performance improvement are negligible. Study shows that the COP improvement using vortex tube as an expansion device are dependent on the refrigerant varieties, operating conditions as well as cycle configurations. Using the vortex tube as an expansion device, isobutane yields a maximum COP improvement of 12.2% for CYC2 followed by propane (11.5% for CYC2), whereas ammonia yields negligible improvement for studies ranges. read more... read less...
Keywords: Vortex tube, expansion device, refrigeration cycle, natural refrigerant, COP improvement
Analysis of a Hybrid Renewable Energy Stand-Alone Unit for Simultaneously Producing Hydrogen and Fresh Water from Sea Water
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 55 - 60
Published: 03 Nov 2013
by Ashraf Balabel, Hamdy Kotb from Mechanical Engineering Dept, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt
Abstract: The present paper proposes a new imaging of a stand-alone unit for the simultaneously production of fresh water and hydrogen gas from sea water and brackish water. The proposed stand-alone unit can contribute effectively to the integrated water policy in Egypt's present and future. The fresh water is produced using desalination with reverse osmosis technologies driven by renewable energy systems. This is thought to be the optimum solution to the potable water scarcity at remote areas characterized by the lack of conventional energy sources like heat and electricity grid. Different new electrochemical concepts for hydrogen production from the produced brine stream are illustrated with the emphasis on the safely removal of the evolved chlorine. Electricity used, either for driving high-pressure pumps or for ionization of salts contained in the sea water, is produced from a hydrogen fuel cell unit. The proposed stand-alone unit can become widely utilized not just for drinking water applications but for industrial process applications where high purity is demand. read more... read less...
Keywords: Desalination, hydrogen production, hydrogen fuel cell, reverse osmosis system, sea wate.
Study on Indonesian Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) Standard Iman
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 2 (2013), PP 49 - 54
Published: 03 Nov 2013
by Paryudi, Stefan Fenz, A Min Tjoa from Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 1040 Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia, 12640
Abstract: Currently buildings in the world become the biggest energy consumers. Energy efficient buildings must be built to reduce energy use by buildings. Building standards is needed to achieve this goal. One of the building standards is based on Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV). The OTTV is a value indicating the average rate of heat transfer into a building through the building envelope. The first country in Asia to adopt the standard is Singapore. It is then followed by other countries in South Asia region including Indonesia. The current Indonesian standard on OTTV is Envelope Energy Conservation in Buildings, SNI 6389: 2011. Parametric analysis on OTTV formula based on Indonesian standard shows that the parameter having the biggest and the smallest impact on OTTV value is window-towall ratio and wall absorptance, respectively. The experiment also reveals that different building orientations will cause only small change in OTTV value read more... read less...
Keywords: OTTV, Energy Efficient Building, Parametric Analysis, Energy Conservation
Performance Characteristics Analysis of Small Diesel Engines Fueled with Different Blends of Mustard Oil Bio-diesel
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 43 - 48
Published: 01 Oct 2013
by Z.M. Hasib, K.A. Rahman from Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abstract: Energy is the prerequisite for modern civilization. Fossil fuel is still the main source of energy. But the endless consumption of fossil fuel has brought its reserve about to an end. As a result, fuel prices are gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. So we are always in search of alternative and cost effective fuels, to meet our need. Diesel engines are more efficient and cost-effective than other engines. So diesel engines have versatile uses (i.e. automobiles, irrigation, power plants etc.). That is why; consumption of diesel fuel is much higher than other gasoline fuels. This paper estimates the feasibility of mustard oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Mustard is a renewable plant, widely growing in almost everywhere in Bangladesh. In this study, mustard oil is converted to bio-diesel by well known transesterification reaction. Bio-diesel has different fuel properties than diesel fuel. So other than modification of the engine or the fuel supply system, blends of bio-diesel (i.e. B20, B30, B50 etc,) has been used. Finally, a comparison of engine performance for different blends of bio-diesel has been carried out to choose the correct blend for different operating conditions. read more... read less...
Keywords: Mustard oil, Bio-diesel, Blends of bio-diesel, Trasn-esterification.
Renewable or Nuclear Energy? Jordan's Energy Strategy Options
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 35 - 42
Published: 19 Jan 2013
by Mousa S. Mohsen from School of Engineering, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: The gap between energy supply and demand is widening in Jordan. Sound measures to overcome this gap are essential for sustainable energy development. In this paper conventional and non-conventional energy resources are discussed. These include crude oil and natural gas, wind, solar, biogas, geothermal, hydropower, and nuclear power. Using multicriteria analysis, options were evaluated for the best component in the energy mix. It was concluded that solar energy is the most inexpensive source of energy while nuclear power is the most expensive; it seems likely that the Jordanian nuclear power program will prove not to be feasible read more... read less...
Keywords: Renewable energy, Nuclear energy, Jordan
Design, Fabrication, and Performance Evaluation of Double Slope Active Solar Still under Forced Circulation Mode
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 27 - 34
Published: 25 Jun 2013
by A.K. Sethi, V.K. Dwivedi from Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, India, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida, U.P, India
Abstract: Water is fundamental to human life on earth for survival and good health. Access to safe water is a major challenge in many communities in developing countries. As world population and social-economic growth, societies are challenged to provide fresh water to meet those needs for all of their people. Growing demands of freshwater resources are creating an urgent need to develop self sustained system to meet the demand of fresh water. Among the available purification technologies, solar desalination process proves to be a suitable solution for resolving this existing crisis. This renewable energy technology operates on a basic principle of solar water distillation. The sun’s energy heat increases the rate of evaporation. As the water evaporates, water vapor rises and condenses on the glass surface for collection. This process removes impurities such as salts and heavy metals as well as eliminates microbiological organisms. In this study, a basin type double slope active solar still under forced circulation mode was designed and fabricated, and a performance evaluation were carried out for different water depths viz 0.03 m, 0.04 m and 0.05 m. The distillate output is maximum 4.82 kg for water depth 0.03 m and minimum 4.36 kg for water depth 0.05 m. The maximum instantaneous thermal efficiency is 46.96 at water depth of 0.04 m. read more... read less...
Keywords: Active solar still, Water depth, Instantaneous thermal efficiency
Energy Optimization of Heat Engine with Infinite Heat Capacity Reservoirs
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 21 - 26
Published: 25 Jun 2013
by Christer Nylund, M. El Haj Assad from Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Jan-Magnus Janssonin aukio 1, Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Energy Technology, 00076 Aalto, Finland
Abstract: The optimal energy output of a heat engine based on the Carnot process is studied. The internal irreversibility of the engine is considered by taking into account the entropy generation in the adiabatic processes. The engine is connected to high and low temperature thermal energy reservoirs with infinite heat capacity. The process temperatures and the energy conductivity of heat exchangers that maximizes the energy output have been obtained. The effect of the internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of the engine is shown. Two numerical examples are given. read more... read less...
Keywords: Heat engine, Irreversibility, Work.
Experimental Performance of a Direct Evaporative Cooler Operating in Kuala Lumpur
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 15 - 20
Published: 25 Jun 2013
by Abdulrahman Th. Mohammad, Sohif Bin Mat, M.Y. Sulaiman, K. Sopian, Abduljalil A. Al-abidi from Solar Energy Research Institute, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Baqubah Technical Institute, Foundation of Technical Education, Baghdad, Iraq
Abstract: The present work presents an experimental investigation on the performance of a direct evaporative cooler in hot and humid regions. The experimental study is based on weather data from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The direct evaporative cooler consists of a cellulose pad with a surface area per unit volume ratio of 100 m2 /m3 . The performance of the evaporative cooler is evaluated using the output temperature, saturation efficiency, and cooling capacity. The output temperature of the air varies between 27.5°C and 29.4° C, while the cooling capacity is between 1.384 kW and 5.358 kW. read more... read less...
Keywords: Evaporative cooler, Saturation efficiency, cooling capacity.
Numerical Simulation of Force Convection in a Channel with Porous Part
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 7 - 14
Published: 25 Jun 2013
by Mojtaba Aghajani Delavar, Farzane Mohammadvali from Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran
Abstract: In the present work, two dimensional laminar flow and convective heat transfer between two parallel plates of a symmetric channel were simulated using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The channel was filled partially with a porous block. The Brinkman- Forchheimer model was used for porous zone. The effects of various parameters such as Reynolds number and porosity on the channel flow and thermal profiles were investigated. It was found that all these parameters have significant influence on thermal field of the channel in certain conditions . read more... read less...
Keywords: Heat transfer, porosity, flow convection
Algerian Strategy in the Context of Sustainable Development: The Case of Green Building
IJTEE, volume-06 , Issue 1 (2013), PP 1 - 6
Published: 25 Jun 2013
by Mohammed El Amine BOUKLI HACENE, Nasr Eddine CHABANE SARI from University of Tlemcen, ALGERIA, 13000, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, ALGERIA, 22000
Abstract: Energy issues and global climate remind us of the urgency of wise use of resources and the necessary changes in the construction industry. Largest consumer of energy and the third emitter of greenhouse gases, it also has other effects, such as the emission of waste, noise, disturbance of the microclimate, consumption water, and groundwater pollution, it would be time to change our gaze to habitats with high potential savings, ecological habitat should meet all these expectations. . In this article we will try to interpret our policy that addresses all the issues mentioned above, and take a challenge to gradually enter into the era of multiple energy and sustainable development, especially in the field of habitat, then we will present a concept of ecological habitat conducted in the city of Tlemcen (west of Algeria). read more... read less...
Keywords: Energy, resources, ecological, policy, sustainable.