volume-16-Issue 2 (2020)
Exergy Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Based Cooling Cycle
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 113 - 118
Published: 08 Aug 2020
by Sandeep Kumar Kamboj, Munawar Nawab Karimi from Vidya College of Engineering, Meerut, India Jamia Millia Islamia Jamianagar, New Delhi 110025, India
Abstract: In this paper, exergy analysis of a lithium bromide water vapor absorption refrigeration system is analyzed. The different alternative fuels (iso-octane, 10% ethanol blended with iso-octane & 10% methanol blended with iso-octane) were used in a spark ignition engine. It is well known that an IC engine has an efficiency of about 35-40%, which means that only one-third of the energy in the fuel is converted into useful work and about 60-65% goes waste into environment. In which about 28-30% is lost by cooling water and lubrication losses, around 30-32% is lost in the form of exhaust gases and remainder by radiation, etc. The heat of exhaust gases of these alternative fuels was used to run the lithium bromide water vapor absorption system. The exergy destruction in various components of the absorption system analyzed. The results of the study show that the maximum energetic efficiency was for the absorption system operated with exhaust gases of iso- octane followed by E10 and M10 fuels. The maximum refrigerating effect was for the iso-octane exhaust gases-based absorption system followed by M10 and E10 fuels. The maximum exergy destruction was observed in the generator. read more... read less...
Keywords: Lithium bromide water vapour absorption system, generator, condenser, evaporator, exergetic efficiency, exergy destruction
Mineral Separation and Characterization of the Ilmenite Ore Phases: Optimization of the TiO2 Pigment Process
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 105 - 112
Published: 08 Aug 2020
by M. Contreras a, M.J. Gázquez , J.P. Bolívar from Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain Department of Applied Physics, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
Abstract: The TiO2 production by the sulphate route uses ilmenite as raw material, which is initially milled and dissolved by adding concentrated Sulphur acid (98%). A significant fraction of the original raw material (about 10-15 %) cannot be dissolved in the digestion step. In order to recovery the titanium (rutile form) and other economic minerals during the digestion stay, was carried out a deep characterization of the used raw material in relation to several parameters, such as the elemental composition (major and trace elements), mineralogy, microscopic morphology and physical composition. Therefore, the main goal of this work has been to separate and to analyses the minerals contained in the raw material in order to isolate the potentially dangerous and economics minerals prior to the industrial process. The main conclusion the study was that the raw material is mainly composed of ilmenite and its alteration products (ilmenite unchanged, leached ilmenite, pseudorutile, leached pseudorutile and rutile), produced by weathering of the original ilmenite, and containing small amounts of other minerals (monazite, spinel, quartz and zircon). According to this, a near total isolation of each mineral is very complex, but a high percent of them can be recovery by optimizing the industrial process. In addition, the economical impurities isolated can be commercial. Likewise, this fact could be reduced the potential environmental impact of the TiO2 industries via sulphate by reducing the waste production. read more... read less...
Keywords: Ilmenite; TiO2 industries, Magnetic mineral separation, Particle morphology, Textural constraints
Energetic, Techno-Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Biorefinery from Sugarcane Bagasse at Different Scales
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 97 - 104
Published: 08 Aug 2020
by Daissy Lorena Restrepo S, Ashley Sthefanía Caballero G, Christian David Botero G, Carlos Ariel Cardona A from Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Manizales, Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria. Laboratorio de Equilibrios Químicos y Cinética Enzimática. Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Manizales, Colombi
Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse is a waste generated in around the world in different quantities. It residue can be used to obtain different products under the concept of the biorefinery. Where the energetic technical, economic and environmental viability can be influenced by the scale of processing. In this sense, an analysis of the size of the biorefinery (scale analysis) was performed to determine the point of economic viability. In addition, an energy analysis was carried out, which allowed to identify the influence that has the processing scale on the energy changes presented throughout the process. As a result, it was possible to observe the importance of the analysis of the scale of a process for the determination of the point in which it is obtained not only an energetic but also economic viability. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse, biorefinery, scale analysis, energetic analysis
Development of Measurement Techniques for Siloxanes in Landfill Gas
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 91 - 96
Published: 07 Aug 2020
by Mirosława Kaszubska, Małgorzata Wzorek from Opole University of Technology, Department of Process Engineering, Opole, Poland
Abstract: In Poland, the biogas obtained from municipal solid waste landfills is most frequently used in biogas systems. In combustion of biogas contaminated with siloxanes, they transform and decompose to silica and silicate deposits, which affect the proper operation of power supply devices, i.e. electric generation systems or boilers. The study aimed to determine the optimal methods for the collection of representative biogas sample for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The main tasks included the selection of the most favorable sampling conditions for siloxane sorption in a given sorbent, i.e. sampling time, gas flow speed and sorbent volume. The study regarded the landfill gas from the Municipal Landfill located in the city of Opole in Poland. Research showed the presence of organosilicon compounds in the tested biogas but their concentration was low. That’s way the landfill gas can be successfully used for energy purposes without compromising the equipment caused by the presence of siloxanes read more... read less...
Keywords: Fuel, Biogas, Landfill, Impurities, Siloxanes
Evaluation of the Solid and Hazardous Wastes Generated by the Automotive Industry in Turkey
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 81 - 90
Published: 07 Aug 2020
by B. Erdogan, G. Salihoglu from Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Uludag, Bursa, 16059, Turkey
Abstract: Development of the automotive industry not only facilitated our daily lives, but also introduced environmental stress. The automotive industry consists of both the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and a great variety of suppliers that support this industry. Most of the published studies focus on the environmental impacts of the OEMs; the impacts of suppliers were generally neglected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the types and amounts of solid and hazardous wastes generated by the automotive industry especially in relation to the supplier companies supporting the automotive manufacturers in Turkey. A survey was conducted with representative numbers of automotive manufacturers and suppliers located in Bursa, Turkey to obtain data on resource usage, waste types, and waste amounts generated. One hundred and five different parts of an automobile were examined in the framework of the study. Interviews were also conducted with the suppliers about the details on each item produced. Resource usage, solid and hazardous waste generation during the production of each component of an automobile were calculated. The environmental burden of the automotive industry in Turkey was roughly calculated in terms of waste generation and resource usage based on energy and water. It was seen that of the items constituting an automobile, which are provided by the suppliers, 47% is made of plastics, 31% is made of textile, and 21% is made of metals. The amounts of water and electricity used for all the items by the suppliers were found as 0.60 m 3/vehicle and 190 kWh/vehicle, respectively. Water and electricity usage by OEMs were 3.47 m3/vehicle and 1763 kWh/vehicle, respectively. Solid and hazardous waste generated by OEMs were found as48.97 kg/vehicle and 7.04 kg/vehicle, respectively, and by suppliers were 5.71 kg/vehicle and 0.6 kg/vehicle, respectively. read more... read less...
Keywords: OEM, supplier companies, questionnaire, automobile components
Plastic Packaging Waste Segregation Behavior of Residents and its Environmental Effect on Municipal Solid Waste Management
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 73 - 79
Published: 08 Aug 2020
by Tomohiro Tabata, Minori Oda, Peii Tsai, Keiko Katagiri from Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan
Abstract: This study surveyed the plastic packaging waste segregation behaviour of residents of Kobe, Japan, especially aged residents. It discusses the possible environmental effects on the municipal solid waste management system that could occur due to the projected increase in the number of senior citizens in the population and the consequent changes in garbage segregation behaviour. Two questionnaire surveys of 1,653 people aged 20 to 99 years old residing in Kobe, Japan, were conducted. The results revealed that younger age groups have a low level of plastic waste segregation behaviour despite a high level of recognition that plastic packaging waste is recyclable. We also found that the level of segregation increases among older age groups but that the level decreases among residents of 85 years and older because of diminished physical mobility. Based on the result, we discuss education about the existing rules pertaining to garbage segregation by using a quantification of the CO2 emissions avoided and not avoided by waste segregation read more... read less...
Keywords: Aging Rate, Garbage Segregation Behavior, Plastic Packaging Waste, Municipal Solid Waste Management
Transport, Sorption and Desorption of Organic Dye Through Quartz Sand Particles
IJTEE, volume-16, Issue 2 (2020) , PP 65 - 71
Published: 07 Aug 2020
by Amane Jada a, Rachid Ait Akbourb from Institut de Sciences Des Matériaux De Mulhouse (IS2M-UMR 7361 CNRS - UHA), Mulhouse, France Laboratoire d’Électrochimie & Catalyse et Environnement, FSA, Université Ibn Zohr, Agadir, Morocco
Abstract: In this work, the effects of various factors such as the aqueous phase pH, the temperature, the ionic strength, the flow velocity and the electrolyte cation nature on the retention, the mobility and the release of Methylene Blue (MB) through quartz sand (QS), used as porous medium, were investigated. Thus, step-input column experiments were carried out to study the transport, sorption and the desorption mechanisms of the MB molecules through a porous medium made of quartz grains. Hence, the five main parameters related to the adsorption experimental conditions, were varied in order to elucidate the adsorption-desorption mechanisms of MB through the QS medium. The MB adsorbed amount, Q ads, was found to decrease by decreasing either the pH, in the range 9.5-4, or the temperature, in the range 333-293°K. Similar decrease of Q ads was also obtained by increasing the flow rate, Q, in the range 45-90 ml. h-1, or by increasing the affinity of the divalent cation (Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ba2+) toward the QS surface. However, slight decrease in the MB adsorbed amount, was observed by increasing the ionic strength, in the range 10-3-10-1M. The overall data indicate that, electrostatic interaction forces, which occur between the cationic organic pollutant and the negative surface of the quartz substrate, mainly control the adsorption process. In addition, the increase of the adsorbed amount with the temperature, suggests that the adsorption is endothermic in nature. read more... read less...
Keywords: Quartz Sand, Methylene Bleu, sorption, desorption, depollution, environment, column experiments