The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) is a high-quality scientific journal devoted to fields of Water and Environmental Sciences. It aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of water and environmental sciences or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
The Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board are very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading international journals in water and environmental sciences in the next few years. With the support of the International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability (IASKS), it is expected that a heavy resource to be channelled into the Journal to establish its international reputation. The Journal’s reputation will be enhanced from arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best papers of the conference proceedings. The journal is planning to publish 4 issues per year.
AIMS AND SCOPE
The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) is a refereed international journal to be of interest and use to all those concerned with research in various fields of, or closely related to water and environmental sciences disciplines. The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of water and environmental sciences or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 67 - 72
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Jamil Al Asfar, Laith Mazahreh from Jamil Al Asfar, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan , Laith Mazahreh, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: Desertification is considered one of the main problems that concerns mankind. Wood stoves and fireplaces mainly use wood as the main source of energy, which would lead to desertification and global warming. This paper presents the design of a domestic automatic stove that primary uses olive cake as the major source of energy. Moreover, a prototype of the theoretical model was built, and experimentally tested for 65 minutes. The efficiency of the prototyped model reached a value of 56.25% read more... read less...
Keywords: Olive Cake, Heating System, Biomass, Biofuels, Automatic.
Damage Identification of HAWT Blade using Ordinary Linear Kriging Method and Variation of Blade’s Modal Parameters
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 59 - 66
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Ameen El-Sinawi, Mohammed Awadallah, Isam Janajreh from Mechanical Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Masdar Institute, PO Box 54224, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: Wind turbine blades operate in a harsh environment causing them to always be susceptible to damage. Variable wind loading, debris impact, and thermal gradient, among other factors, can cause damage to the blades. Detection of blade damage at early stages can prevent massive cost associated with turbine down-time and blade replacement. In this work, a vibration-based method is presented to detect damage at early stages. The presented method takes advantage of the effect of crack on modal parameters of the blade’s vibration. Finite element model (FEA) is constructed for both healthy and damage blade to study that effect. Power spectral density (PSD) plots of the blade’s vibration before and after damage are compared and the changes in the resonant modal amplitude’s frequencies are identified. To minimize the number accelerometers needed to monitor the health of the blade and without compromising the accuracy of damage predictions, ordinary kriging method is used to predict cracks in the blade’s structure. Kriging uses modal parameter data, experimental or otherwise, to estimate damage location on the blade. It creates a map of damage predictions throughout the region use measurements from far less sensors than common techniques. Damage characteristics estimates using the proposed method showed damage attributes predictions with accuracy greater than 93 %. Simulation is used to validate the proposed method and the results are discussed. read more... read less...
Keywords: Vibration Analysis, Wind Turbine Damage, Kriging Analysis, Model Parameters, FEA, BEMM method
Mathematical Modelling for the Thermal Performance of a Solar Parabolic Trough Concentrator (PTC) Under Egypt Climate
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 51 - 58
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Mohamed H. Ahmed , Alberto Giaconia , Amr. M. A. Amin from Solar Energy Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt Energy Technologies Department, ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Roma, Italy Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: In this work, an analysis of the annual performance of a parabolic trough concentrator has been accomplished. A numerical model was developed and built to study the annual performance of the parabolic trough collector's field at different locations in Egypt. The energy equations were solved using the Engineering Equation Solver EES software. The optical and thermal parameters of the concentrator were considered in the model. The numerical model results showed that temperature rise ranges from 90.5 to 221 °C and the outlet temperate ranges from 442 to 565 ºC at solar noon according to the season and the location. The operating period of the parabolic concentrator reaches its maximum value at summer where it ranges from 76.5 to 82 h/week. The present model was validated with the TRNSYS model. As a result, the presented model can be considered as a meaningful tool for developing the parabolic trough plant in Egypt. read more... read less...
Keywords: Solar Plant, Numerical Model, Parabolic Trough Collector, Collector Efficiency, Annual Performance, Model Validation
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 41 - 50
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Mohamed H. Ahmed from Solar Energy Department, National Research Center, Giza 12622, Egypt
Abstract: Solar energy has a great ability in cooling and air conditioning as the demand for cooling and air conditioning coincides with the availability of solar energy. In this study, a simulation program using TRNSYS platform was built to simulate and optimize the design and operating parameters. The hourly thermal performance of a single stage LiBr/H 2O solar absorption cooling system powered by linear Fresnel Concentrator was investigated under Cairo climate. The components size of the solar absorption cooling plant was optimized. The performance of the cooling system was studied in terms of the rate of useful energy from the concentrator, of the collector outlet temperature, and the coefficient of the performance COP of the absorption chiller. From the study, it was found that the optimum storage tank capacity depends on the area of the solar concentrator. Increasing the storage tank capacity from 3 to 9 m 3 leads to a decrease in the maximum outlet temperature from the collector from 182 to 120 ºC and consequently decreasing the Absorption chiller COP from 0.46 to0.07 respectively. Supplying a gas backup heating unit ensures stability for powering the adsorption cooling system. Increasing the backup unit capacity increase the operating hours of the absorption chiller. read more... read less...
Keywords: Solar Cooling, Absorption, Linear Fresnel Concentrator, Simulation, Storage Tank, TRNSYS
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 29 - 40
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Ayesha AlQubaisi, Ali Al-Alili from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University, Sas Al Nakhl Campus, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: The design, construction, and operation of highly efficient residential buildings in hot and humid climates represent a unique challenge for architects, contractors, and building owners. In this paper, a case study on the performance of a residential building located in hot and humid region is presented. The building is a single-family house, which is modeled as a multi-zone building. The transient systems simulation program (TRNSYS) is used to simulate the building under Abu Dhabi’s typical meteorological year conditions. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of applying different standards and building codes such as LEED, ASHRAE and Estidama for hot and humid regions on the energy performance of the building. The energy consumption of the building includes different equipment namely: air conditioners, lighting and electric water heaters. The building thermal analysis is extended to include the occupants thermal comfort analysis using different building codes. Moreover, the environmental impacts upon selecting Estidama for hot and humid regions will be discussed. read more... read less...
Keywords: Green building rating; Estidama; LEED; Energy Efficiency; Thermal comfort
Boosting Regulations Legislation Reliefs Regarding Environmental Management Systems in the Framework of EMAS and ISO 14001: Case Study of Cyprus
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 19 - 27
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Loizia Pantelitsa , Voukkali Irene , Antonis A. Zorpas from ENVITECH (Environmental Technology) Ltd, Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Department of Research – Development, Paralimni, Cyprus Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability Nicosia, Cyprus
Abstract: Environmental Management Systems (EMS) defining a list of requirements that can help organizations to improve their environmental performance. The most common well-known standards are ISO 14001 and EMAS, which both are in a voluntary base. Beside the National Legislation in Cyprus (N.761/2001) there is no any relief document that introduced EMAS Regulation (EC) N. 1221/2009.However, there is an increasing pressure on firms, from a number of different sources (i.e. global market requirements, legislative indirect pressure, customer’s satisfaction etc.), to engage in environmental management initiatives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incentives as well as the difficulties that Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which are located in Cyprus and other European countries (i.e. Italy, Chez Republic and Slovenia) that are facing during the implementation of EMS. The preliminary results indicated that in the case of Cyprus, there are not any specific regulatory reliefs besides some funding programs to convince SMEs to implement and maintain EMAS as well as ISO 14001. On the other hand, in several EU countries there are some more solids measures to encourage SMEs to adopt EMAS. read more... read less...
Keywords: EMAS legislation, ISO 14001 legislation, BRAVER.
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 11 - 18
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Syed Shabbar Raza, Khadije El Kadi, Isam Janajreh from Mechanical Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: Greenhouse (GH) has been demonstrated as a profitable technology for food production with low demand of irrigation water. In this work, a numerical model is developed to study the micro-climatic environmental conditions inside a greenhouse distillation system for optimize operation. The system performance (temperatures, flow velocities, relative humidity) is presented and improvement factors for the system performance are suggested. The result shows that the inlet velocity and plant transpiration have a more pronounced effect on the relative humidity than the incoming temperature variation. As temperature increases by 8C o the relative humidity decreases with few percentiles (~2%). When velocity varies between 0.2-0.7m/s, and within the diurnal operation of the GH, an increase of up to 5 points in the humidity is observed. Finally, when the transpiration increases from 0.2 to 1.2 g/m 3 the relative humidity observes a drastic jump of over 15 points. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sustainable Greenhouses, CFD, HVAC, Plant Transpiration
Comparing Between Best Energy Efficient Techniques Worldwide with Existing Solution Implemented in Al-Ahliyya Amman University
IJTEE, volume-17 , Issue 1 (2018), PP 1 - 10
Published: 06 Dec 2018
by Ammar Alkhalidi, Walaa Hassan from Energy Engineering Department, German Jordanian University, Amman, Jordan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Abstract: In this research paper, an overview of energy reduction methods around the world in commercial buildings was investigated, to find out the best solution for minimizing electricity demand of Al-Ahliyya Amman University (AAU).Those methods are renewable energy technologies mainly wind and photovoltaics (PV) system using either conventional or Carbon Nanotubes panels, building envelope system mainly dynamic Insulation materials and cool roof coating and National country system mainly demand response program and energy consumption ration. According to the overview, the best-promised method solution to achieve the target of saving, reducing investment cost and carbon emissions in AAUis the Standalone Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes PV system. This method was compared with the existing on-grid PV system project applied in AAU. The comparison was based on investment cost, payback period and solar cell efficiency. The comparison analysis results revealed that Standalone Carbon Nanotube PV system was able to save 21.12% of the investment cost when compared to the existing AAU project with a reduced payback period from 10 to 8 years and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 16%. read more... read less...
Keywords: carbon Nanotube PV system, Energy Efficient Techniques, Amman Jordan.
Energetic, Techno-Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Biorefinery from Sugarcane Bagasse at Different Scales
IJTEE, volume-16 , Issue 2 (2018), PP 97 - 104
Published: 08 Aug 2018
by Daissy Lorena Restrepo S, Ashley Sthefanía Caballero G, Christian David Botero G, Carlos Ariel Cardona A from Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Manizales, Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria. Laboratorio de Equilibrios Químicos y Cinética Enzimática. Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Manizales, Colombi
Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse is a waste generated in around the world in different quantities. It residue can be used to obtain different products under the concept of the biorefinery. Where the energetic technical, economic and environmental viability can be influenced by the scale of processing. In this sense, an analysis of the size of the biorefinery (scale analysis) was performed to determine the point of economic viability. In addition, an energy analysis was carried out, which allowed to identify the influence that has the processing scale on the energy changes presented throughout the process. As a result, it was possible to observe the importance of the analysis of the scale of a process for the determination of the point in which it is obtained not only an energetic but also economic viability. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse, biorefinery, scale analysis, energetic analysis
IJTEE, volume-16 , Issue 2 (2018), PP 91 - 96
Published: 07 Aug 2018
by Mirosława Kaszubska, Małgorzata Wzorek from Opole University of Technology, Department of Process Engineering, Opole, Poland
Abstract: In Poland, the biogas obtained from municipal solid waste landfills is most frequently used in biogas systems. In combustion of biogas contaminated with siloxanes, they transform and decompose to silica and silicate deposits, which affect the proper operation of power supply devices, i.e. electric generation systems or boilers. The study aimed to determine the optimal methods for the collection of representative biogas sample for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The main tasks included the selection of the most favorable sampling conditions for siloxane sorption in a given sorbent, i.e. sampling time, gas flow speed and sorbent volume. The study regarded the landfill gas from the Municipal Landfill located in the city of Opole in Poland. Research showed the presence of organosilicon compounds in the tested biogas but their concentration was low. That’s way the landfill gas can be successfully used for energy purposes without compromising the equipment caused by the presence of siloxanes read more... read less...
Keywords: Fuel, Biogas, Landfill, Impurities, Siloxanes
IJTEE, volume-16 , Issue 2 (2018), PP 81 - 90
Published: 07 Aug 2018
by B. Erdogan, G. Salihoglu from Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Uludag, Bursa, 16059, Turkey
Abstract: Development of the automotive industry not only facilitated our daily lives, but also introduced environmental stress. The automotive industry consists of both the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and a great variety of suppliers that support this industry. Most of the published studies focus on the environmental impacts of the OEMs; the impacts of suppliers were generally neglected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the types and amounts of solid and hazardous wastes generated by the automotive industry especially in relation to the supplier companies supporting the automotive manufacturers in Turkey. A survey was conducted with representative numbers of automotive manufacturers and suppliers located in Bursa, Turkey to obtain data on resource usage, waste types, and waste amounts generated. One hundred and five different parts of an automobile were examined in the framework of the study. Interviews were also conducted with the suppliers about the details on each item produced. Resource usage, solid and hazardous waste generation during the production of each component of an automobile were calculated. The environmental burden of the automotive industry in Turkey was roughly calculated in terms of waste generation and resource usage based on energy and water. It was seen that of the items constituting an automobile, which are provided by the suppliers, 47% is made of plastics, 31% is made of textile, and 21% is made of metals. The amounts of water and electricity used for all the items by the suppliers were found as 0.60 m 3/vehicle and 190 kWh/vehicle, respectively. Water and electricity usage by OEMs were 3.47 m3/vehicle and 1763 kWh/vehicle, respectively. Solid and hazardous waste generated by OEMs were found as48.97 kg/vehicle and 7.04 kg/vehicle, respectively, and by suppliers were 5.71 kg/vehicle and 0.6 kg/vehicle, respectively. read more... read less...
Keywords: OEM, supplier companies, questionnaire, automobile components
Plastic Packaging Waste Segregation Behavior of Residents and its Environmental Effect on Municipal Solid Waste Management
IJTEE, volume-16 , Issue 2 (2018), PP 73 - 79
Published: 08 Aug 2018
by Tomohiro Tabata, Minori Oda, Peii Tsai, Keiko Katagiri from Kobe University, Kobe, Japan, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan
Abstract: This study surveyed the plastic packaging waste segregation behaviour of residents of Kobe, Japan, especially aged residents. It discusses the possible environmental effects on the municipal solid waste management system that could occur due to the projected increase in the number of senior citizens in the population and the consequent changes in garbage segregation behaviour. Two questionnaire surveys of 1,653 people aged 20 to 99 years old residing in Kobe, Japan, were conducted. The results revealed that younger age groups have a low level of plastic waste segregation behaviour despite a high level of recognition that plastic packaging waste is recyclable. We also found that the level of segregation increases among older age groups but that the level decreases among residents of 85 years and older because of diminished physical mobility. Based on the result, we discuss education about the existing rules pertaining to garbage segregation by using a quantification of the CO2 emissions avoided and not avoided by waste segregation read more... read less...
Keywords: Aging Rate, Garbage Segregation Behavior, Plastic Packaging Waste, Municipal Solid Waste Management