The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) is a high-quality scientific journal devoted to fields of Thermal and Environmental Engineering It aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of Thermal and Environmental Engineering or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
The Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board are very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading international journals in Thermal and Environmental Engineering in the next few years. With the support of the International Association for Sharing Knowledge and Sustainability (IASKS), it is expected that a heavy resource to be channeled into the Journal to establish its international reputation. The Journal’s reputation will be enhanced from arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best papers of the conference proceedings. The journal is planning to publish 4 issues per year.
AIMS AND SCOPE
The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) is a refereed international journal to be of interest and use to all those concerned with research in various fields of, or closely related to Thermal and Environmental Engineering disciplines. The International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering (IJTEE) aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in the fields of Thermal and Environmental Engineering or closely related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
A shelf-life model considering mechanical injury and natural decay to optimize fresh fruit distribution
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 89 - 99
Published: 02 Sep 2021
by Damrongpol Kamhangwong, Aicha Sekhari, Gilles Neubert from Université Lumière Lyon 2, Lyon, France and Emlyon Business School, Saint-Étienne, France.
Abstract: This paper develops a specific quality attribute model considering mechanical injury (MI) and natural decay (ND) in fresh fruit, for problem solving in operations research. The model resolves shortcomings found in the widely adopted models mainly focused on a set or an undetermined shelf life, through a multi-objective framework designed to study the economic benefits of fresh fruit distribution. The multi-objective optimization model integrates the transportation and inventory planning of fresh fruit (MOTIP). It is based on a bi-objective function maximizing the total net profit (NP) and the percentage of the remaining fruit quality (%RQ), using a Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) to solve the problem. The results indicate the accuracy of NSGA-II algorithm to solve the problem of fresh fruit distribution. The optimal Pareto front curves of the TIP model show a strong positive correlation between the %RQ and the NP. While the specific kinetic shelf-life model can be used to decide on the best schedule for transporting and storing fruit in order to optimize the net profit and remaining quality, the MOTIP-model allows a significant improvement in the benefits related to the export of fresh fruit while minimizing the loss of quality. The developed model is a decision support tool that allows exporters to better plan the transport and storage of exported fresh fruits. read more... read less...
Keywords: fresh fruit quality; fresh fruit distribution; shelf-life model; quality loss; multi-objective decision-making
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 79 - 88
Published: 02 Sep 2021
by Wenjuan Zhang, Isam Janajreh, Mohammed Al Kobaisi from Department of petroleum engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: Various models of simulating immiscible multiphase flow in a simple fracture intersection is compared numerically in this work. The first two models assume that the fractures can be treated as a type of porous media and fluid flow in fractures is therefore governed by Darcy’s law. The fractures are either gridded explicitly (equal-dimensional porous fracture model) to account for the fracture intersection or they are simplified as lower-dimensional entities (lower-dimensional porous fracture model) and fracture intersection is eliminated in the computational domain by using the star-delta transformation. Numerical results of equal-dimensional porous fracture model demonstrate that fracture intersection angle and the scale ratio of fracture length to fracture aperture can impact the multiphase flow behavior at fracture intersections but the effects of these factors cannot be captured by the lower-dimensional porous fracture model. A CFD study is then conducted to gain better insight into the problem by solving the Navier-Stokes equation coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The results show that viscosity of the two phases can affect flow at the fracture intersection. When the two phases have the same viscosity, the equal-dimensional porous fracture model agrees qualitatively with CFD results but the porous fracture model is much more sensitive to viscosity contrast than what is predicted by CFD simulation. read more... read less...
Keywords: Fracture modeling, Darcy’s law,Navier-Stokes equation, volume of fluid
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 71 - 77
Published: 02 Sep 2021
by Muhammad Imran, Salah Elaskari, Abdulmajeed Eid Albalawi from University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, 71491 and American International University, Al Jahra, Kuwait
Abstract: Universities around the globe consume large number of papers every year for educational and administrative purposes. A major portion of these papers are consumed for exam purpose only. Post Covid -19, several universities have moved to computer-based exams because of health and safety concerns. The purpose of this article is to compare paper and computer-based exams primarily from the perspective of their impact on the environment. Our main aim is to perform Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for three scenarios and find out which one of them is better from the environmental perspective. The three scenarios that have been considered for LCA modelling are as follows: (1) consumed papers go to landfill, (2) consumed papers are recycled, and (3) switching to computer-based exams. The procedure of conducting the LCA follows the ISO 14040 standard method which consists of four steps: (1) goal and scope definition, (2) inventory analysis, (3) impact assessment and (4) interpretation. This research uses GaBi educational software tool for LCA modeling and considers Global Warming Potential (GWP) as the impact category for comparison purpose. A further comparison from student performance point of view has also been made at the end of the article. The result of this research shows that computer-based exams have least impact on the environment based on the selected GWP impact category as compared to paper-based exams. Furthermore, it has been found that there is no significant student performance difference in either type of these exams. read more... read less...
Keywords: LCA; Paper-based exam; Computer-based exam; Environmental impact
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 70 - 70
Published: 02 Sep 2021
by Saeed k. Al Nuaimi, Manish K. Singh from Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis MN 55455,USA
Abstract: Self-power sensors at multiple places in a network will be required for advanced wireless communication infrastructure, which comprises remote sensing technologies, networks, and data management. It is still difficult to power these sensors and their related transmitters or receivers. Local energy harvesting presents a chance to mitigate or eliminate the impact of this problem as an enabling technology. We create a self-powered real-time point-to-point wireless communication system, also known as transmission power self-optimization, that adapts the transmission power of a specific node in a wireless sensor network to the requirements. The transmitter module co-located with a vibrating object harvests and stores energy from vibration through piezoelectric components. Even when the vibrating source has very little energy, the collected energy allows for reliable wireless communication. The proposed system is discussed in detail, and data on voltage sensing, harvested power storage, and current are examined. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart sensors; Energy harvesting;Internet of Things; Vibration sensing; Wireless transmission
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 57 - 63
Published: 02 Sep 2021
by Liu Su, Isam Janajreh from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: A three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed in this work to study 3.5kW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). The model is based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes flow that accounts for the turbulence via SST k-ω turbulence model in a Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) that considers the rotor rotation. A body-fitted multi-block mesh is constructed around the turbine rotor with high-resolution mesh in the high-velocity gradient regions and in conjunction with the standard law of the wall next to the blade surface. The mod el comprises 4.5 million hexahedral elements; the blade is specifically wrapped in an O-grid boundary layer to achieve the desirable y+ value (<60). The flow around the blade was studied in detail (velocity, pressure, etc.) and results of the power coeffic ients were compared to the experimental data, which showed a plausible trend. The developed procedures can be easily and economically applied to any given HAWT configuration making the CFD a virtual wind tunnel in another complex atmospheric boundary layer flow. In view of these results, 2D blade mode is also developed and the power coefficient (Cp) values for the two models are compared. The results emphasized the role of rotation and radial momentum and demonstrated large discrepancies in the attained blade pressure values. read more... read less...
Keywords: CFD, HAWT, SRF, SST k -ω, Wall modeling
Investigating the Potential of Salinity Gradient Solar Pond as a Thermal Energy Storage System for Lahore Pakistan
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 2 (2021), PP 101 - 105
Published: 23 Aug 2022
by Muhammad Ali, Ussama Ali, Muhammad Tayyab Qureshi, Muhammad Lolak from The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract: This work is an attempt to experimentally study the ability of solar pond to store the thermal energy in the form of heat, and to explore the potential of solar energy and the prospects of solar ponds in Pakistan. A brief overview of the energy mix of Pakistan. Solar pond was built using a water tank of 300-galons. Halogen lamps were used to provide the heat and to resemble the sun’s radiations. The temperature of upper convective zone (UCZ) and lower convective zone (LCZ) was recorded for 100 hours. A maximum temperature of 66°C was recorded for LCZ, while that for UCZ was almost 40°C. Cyclic variations occurred in the temperature measurements of both zones which occurred with a time perio d of 24 hours which showed that the variation was due to the variants in the ambient weather conditions. This study provided short overview on the prospect of solar pond to store solar thermal energy which can then be utilized for various domestic/commercial activities. read more... read less...
Keywords: Solar thermal energy, Salinity gradient, Solar pond; Energy mix, Thermal storage
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 45 - 56
Published: 06 Dec 2021
by Reem Alameri, Muhammad Munir, Sajid Hussain, Ali Al Alili, Ehab El-Sadaany from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, PO Box 12778, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, TELUS Telecommunication Inc., 3777 Kingsway, Burnaby, BC, CANADA V5H 3Z7, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Abstract: Power systems are moving towards smart grids through the incorporation of new digital technologies and equipment that increases the system complexity. The power systems become more prone to many types of failures such as cyber-attacks and sensors failure. Therefore, efficient fault analysis is essential to maintain normal grid operations. In this research, an intelligent technique is proposed to detect, classify, and understand the propagation behaviors of the short circuit faults induced in an IEEE 39-bus system. The proposed method is also capable of identifying faults causes and consequences, and suggesting remedial actions. The IEEE 39 bus system is modeled under normal and faulty conditions. A number of datasets are created from the smart grid model, which are then processed separately by Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for fault detection. After that, statistical features are extracted from the coefficients generated by the DWT. The most significant features are identified by the Random Forest algorithm, producing reduced features matrices, which are used to train and test four supervised machine learning techniques, namely: Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Bagged and Boosted Trees. The Frequency at the synchronous generators is found to be the best input to the classifiers based on the highest predictive accuracies attained by the classification techniques. The SVM achieved the highest average predictive accuracy of 98.4% and an F1 score of 0.98; therefore, it is selected as the best technique for fault classification. In addition, Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are built for fault propagation. The BBN can identify the fault location and the impacted buses through probability theory. Finally, a dynamic Fault Semantic Network (FSN) is constructed. The FSN utilizes the fault information and knowledge acquired by the Classifier and BBN for causes and consequences analysis and repair actions. read more... read less...
Keywords: Fault detection, Classification, Bayesian Belief Networks, Supervised Machine Learning
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 35 - 44
Published: 01 Dec 2021
by Haider Ali khan, Muhammed Zafar Khan, Chaouki Ghanai, Isam Janajreh from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, Sustainable & Renewable Energy Engineering Department, University of Sharjah, UAE
Abstract: Renewable energy is the energy of the future because it is the best long-term alternative for fossil fuels, which are facing numerous issues, particularly from an environmental standpoint. The world has established a number of targets to address the issues posed by the conventional energy sector. The United Nations has set 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved by 2030; previously, many countries were not on track to meet these goals; however, the Covid-19 pandemic, which not only affected people's health, but also the energy sector, has demonstrated how quickly we are accustomed to change and can respond quickly and collectively with a common goal. As a result, the focus of this article is on the COVID-19's influence on the RE industry and its implications for future greener fuels. We talked about the opportunities that have arisen as a result of the COVID-19 situation that can help with the shift to alternative fuels. Finally, the problems and opportunities facing the creation of more environmentally friendly transportation fuels are identified. This document offers governments practical insights, options, and recommendations to consider read more... read less...
Keywords: Renewable energy, COVID-19, Greener fuels
Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Blends of HHO Gas with Gasoline and CNG
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 27 - 34
Published: 01 Dec 2021
by Muhammad Shahid Farooq, Ussama Ali, Muhammad Mubashir Farid, Tanveer Mukhtar from Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lahore Leads University, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
Abstract: Fossil fuels are widely used all over the world to power the motor vehicles. Due to superfluous consumption of these fuels, their reservoirs are depleting continuously. The huge demand of crude oil has caused the unprecedented price rise, environmental pollution, and global warming which directly affects the living beings as well as the surroundings in which they are surviving. Alternative fuels can suffice the demand with less adverse effects on the environment through the means of different sustainable technologies. Hydroxy gas (HHO) can be effective source of energy to combat these prominent issues. This work covers the experimental analysis of different parameters related to advantages and disadvantages of using HHO as a blend with gasoline and CNG fuel mixture. The analysis is based on engine performance and emissions. The experiments were performed on engine model fueled with a mixture of fuel and HHO gas. HHO was used as a fuel supplement. A compact HHO gas kit was installed in the engine compartment. A 219cc, four stroke, single cylinder spark ignition engine was used. No modifications were required in the engine design as HHO was used as a fuel supplement. The production of HHO was accomplished by the electrolysis of double distilled water in the presence of KOH(aq.) as an electrolyte. Products of water electrolysis consisted of H2 and O2 in the ratio of 2:1 by volumetric basis. Performance enhancement in overall engine characteristics such as brake power, specific fuel consumption, and overall efficiency was observed. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide was noticed. However, due to lean air-fuel mixture and tremendous peak combustion temperature the amount of NOx was increased. read more... read less...
Keywords: hydroxy gas, HHO, fuel blend, engine performance, exhaust emissions
DSSNet Framework - Analysis of Combined Simulation and Emulation Results for Smart Grid Planning and Evaluation: A Survey
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 19 - 25
Published: 01 Dec 2021
by Usman Arshad, Muhammad Adnan , Farooq Mustafa Joyia, Waqas Nazir Awan, Muhammad Ali, Tayaba Abbasi from Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Department of Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: The recent advancements in power sector and technological revolution have enabled an environment for scientist and researchers to explore this area in new terms. Successful operations of modern grid systems highly rely on the communication architecture. New mechanisms for effective, reliable, and controllable network applications are being developed to enhance the efficiency of grid systems. This inclusion of communication networks in Smart Grid (SG) systems has opened the doors to apply Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology to enhance the efficiency and performance of SG systems. The Distribution System Simulator Network (DSSNet) relies on container based virtual time system used for synchronization among power simulation and network emulation. System scalability and usability can be enhanced with the distributed controller environment. This research work provides a framework for combining power distribution simulation with SDN emulation to analyze communication network applications for planning and evaluation of smart grid systems. The performance of DSSNet has been demonstrated and evaluated with a case study of demand and supply application. Demand and supply application tested with a large number of nodes demonstrate a new research finding of time delay with increased nodes. Finally, limitations and shortcomings of DSSNet have also been discussed which opens new doors for researchers to explore large network and more nodes-based SG systems. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart Grid, DSSNet, SDN Emulator, Power Simulator, ONOS, OpenDSS
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 09 - 17
Published: 01 Dec 2021
by Tayyab Qureshi, Hafiz Muhammad Shoaib, Ussama Ali, Muhammad Hamid Siddiqi, Muhammad Asif Hussain, Hafiz Umair Lateef from University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Department of Advanced Materials Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, PL 50-370, Wroclaw, PL, Poland, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, School of Automation, Electrical Engineering Department, North Western Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China
Abstract: The objective of the current study was to compare and analyze physiochemical characteristics of compost samples and determination of solid waste being dumped in a landfill site in Lahore, Pakistan. Different compost samples were analyzed to evaluate their physiochemical characteristics. The samples tested were collected from three different sources, i.e., Waste Buster, Kinnaird College, and Lahore Compost Private Limited, and compared with the waste sample dumped at Mahmood Booti landfill site. The analysis showed that the percentage composition of organics was highest than the other components in all the samples. The parameters that were analyzed include pH, moisture content, bulk density, salinity, carbon-nitrogen ratio, sodicity, available carbon, burned carbon, potassium, phosphorous, nitrogen, pathogens, gravel, and stones. The results were compared to the permissible limits according to The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Most of the sample components were under the permissible limits, whereas a few others were not, such as potassium and burned carbon. The amount of potassium was found to be 0.60 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L, and 0.61 mg/L for the samples collected from Waste Buster, Kinnaird College, and Lahore Compost Private Limited , respectively. This is much less than the standards set by the EPA i.e., 620-2280 mg/L which can lead to deficiency of nutrients in the compost. Burned carbon was found to be 46%, and 41% in the samples from Waste Buster and Kinnaird College respectively, which is higher than the standard of 35%. The higher amount of burned carbon can damage the plants and is not desired. The salinity content was also found to be higher in the sample from Kinnaird College which was 8.99 dS/m compared to the standard of 4.0 dS/m. The compost sample of Lahore Compost Private Limited was found to be the best among the tested samples. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart Grid, DSSNet, SDN Emulator, Power Simulator, ONOS, OpenDSS
IJTEE, Volume-18 , Issue 1 (2021), PP 00 - 08
Published: 01 Dec 2021
by Muhammad Shahid Farooq, Muhammad Mubashir Farid, Ussama Ali, Tanveer Mukhtar from Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lahore Leads University, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
Abstract: A computational analysis was performed to ascertain the effect of nanofluids on heat transfer in a flat tube heat exchanger of a car radiator. The nanofluids Al2O3/H2O and CuO/H2O were used with nanoparticles of different diameter in the range of 10-60 nm. A single-phase approach was implemented in the analysis. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated at various Reynolds numbers (250, 750, 1250, and 1750) with several nanoparticle concentration by volume of 1%, 3%, and 6%. Results indicated that the heat transfer rate increased with increase in the concentration by volume of nanoparticles. Whereas the decrease in the diameter of nanoparticle favored higher heat transfer rates. Therefore, the maximum heat transfer rate was observed at 6% concentration and at 10nm diameter size for both types of nanoparticles analyzed in this study for flat tube car radiator. The Al2O3/H2O nanofluid showed higher heat transfer rates than the CuO/H2O nanofluid at all Reynolds numbers. read more... read less...
Keywords: Flat tube heat exchanger, Nanoparticles, Convection heat transfer coefficient, Nanofluids, Heat transfer, CFD