volume-07-Issue 1 (2015)
Synergistic Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 55 - 58
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, and Aniruddha B. Pandit from Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India
Abstract: p-Nitro phenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively, Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters. The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi. Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decomposition of p- Nitrophenol was quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP- H2O2 system exhibited 91% more degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the degradation PNP. read more... read less...
Keywords: p-Nitrophenol, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Synergism, Wastewater Treatment.
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 47 - 53
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by M. Ayub Khan Yousuf Zai, M. Rashid Kamal Ansari, Jawaid Iqbal, Arif Hussain, and Ahmed Hasan from Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics and Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Federal University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: Ozone is of considerable importance to mankind because of its role as a shield for the biosphere against the Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the outer space, in particular from the sun. In the recent years, the advancement in the science and technology has increased the understanding of various phenomena of the environment and consequently the predictability of many naturally occurring events. It has been Due to a serious reduction of O3 content in the atmosphere life forms on the earth are exposed to a new hazard in the form of an increase of harmful solar UV radiation intensity at the sea level. Obviously, this situation calls for an assessment, monitoring and prevention of the incidence of decrease in the O3 concentration. The fluctuating dynamics of stratospheric ozone layer depletion (OLD) for Pakistan atmospheric region has been introduced by mentioning the production and annihilation of ozone. The recent development in the theory and application of wavelets are yielding powerful multi resolution techniques for the analysis of time series and image data. Wavelets are the central idea of a broad framework for displaying and analyzing data. Wavelets possess a simultaneous time frequency localization that makes them useful in presenting complicated signals. In this communication, behavior of ozone is explained on the basis of ozone profile, effects of periodic, a-periodic change along with effects of monthly and seasonal variations using wavelet analysis. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wavelet Characterization, Ozone Layer Depletion, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, biosphere
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 41 - 45
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Anis H. Fakeeha, Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Ahmed S. Al Fatesh, Wasim U. Khan, Yahya A. Mohammed, Ahmed E. Abasaeed, Mostafa A. Soliman and Raja L. Al-Otaibi from Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Chemical Engineering Department, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Cairo, Egypt King A City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia
Abstract: In recent years, hydrogen production received enormous attention, since it is an environmentally friendly, energy source. The aim of this research was to examine the hydrogen production with the help of methane’s catalytic decomposition. 30% Fe coupled with different % of Co over alumina support, were examined by catalytic decomposition of methane for the production of hydrogen. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation method. The catalytic activity results revealed that the catalysts, coupled 15%Co gave the highest conversion of 72.5% as depicted by the three-hour time on stream profile. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as BET, H2-TPR, and XRD. read more... read less...
Keywords: Al2O3, Carbon Nanotubes, Co, Fe, Hydrogen, Methane Introduction Nowadays, hydrogen is regarded as ideal fuel that can replace the fossil, particularly when it is produced without carbon oxides.
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 37 - 40
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Waqarullah Kazim from RAK Research and Innovation Center, American University of Ras-Al-Khaimah, UAE
Abstract: PV Panel mounting structure for ground, flat surface and rooftops are getting common and gaining their popularity for several reasons, with availability of vast land that can easily be turned into flat surfaces and flat roof tops of buildings, there is a high probability of such products getting common in short span of time in this region. Conventional mounting structures require ample amount of time for them to be ready for installation, such flat surface mounting structures reduces or eliminates huge chunk of expense. The efficiency is effected due to the tilt, which is obvious, but the effect on performance of the rooftop PV system due to temperature and less airflow is discussed in this paper. read more... read less...
Keywords: Photovoltaics, Renewable, Rooftop, FlatSurface, Ground Mounted PV, Mounting Structure, Performance
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 29 - 35
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Jameelu S. Abaya, Rabee Rustum and Don Ashan Haputantri from Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE Institute of infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University Department of Operations, ARMS Group, Dubai, UAE
Abstract: Onsite waste water treatment systems are the most economical way of dealing with used water in an isolated environment. And because of the variability normally associated with the operation of these systems is linked to either varying hydraulic loading or the nature of the environment in which the system was installed, the performance of these systems needs to be evaluated to find out the optimum operating condition. In this work, the performance of two small-scale treatment systems used for wastewater and gray water was evaluated. This was done by comparing the measure of some physical, chemical and biological parameters in the effluent to the standards of effluent discharge sets by Dubai Municipality. The performance was also measured from other angles using the proposed Swedish Water and Wastewater Association performance indicators so as to give the analysis a wider coverage of economic and energy consumption. The result shows that the performance of the installed solar-powered treatment systems was enough to meet the requirements set by Dubai municipality for effluent discharge except for Ammonia-Nitrogen. Also, the deployment of solar power energy supply, coupled with a low energy usage of the two systems, has made this particular setting an environmentally sustainable setting for such an isolated site. read more... read less...
Keywords: waste water treatment systems, isolated environment, hydraulic loading, discharge sets by Dubai Municipality
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 21 - 28
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Zeinelabidin E. RIZK from Institute of Environment, Water and Energy, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, UAE
Abstract: Results of several research studies conducted on Wadi Al Bih Basin in Ras Al Khaimah area between 1996 and 2015 were used to answer the question: why Wadi Al Bih limestone is the most sustainable aquifer in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)? Extensive field work, climatic data, hydrogeologic studies, results of chemical analysis of 193 groundwater samples, records of stable (2H and 18O) and radioisotopes (3H and 14C) in 52 rainwater samples and 312 groundwater samples, analysis of aquifer recharge to discharge and findings of a numerical model were used in this investigation. Results show that Wadi Al Bih basin receives an average annual rainfall of 155 mm, which is higher the UAE annual average (119 mm). Annual rainfall in excess of 400 mm is common in the study area. The percentage of aquifer recharge from the total annual rainfall (74 million m3) was ≈9% (6.7 million m3), increased to 13% (17.6 million m3) after construction of Wadi Al Bih dam in 1982. In the meantime, the reduction of average annual groundwater production from Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer decreased from 9 million m3 during the period 1991-1995 to 4.5 million m3 during the period 2010-2014. The decrease in groundwater pumping from the aquifer paralleled the construction of Al Buryat, Al Humraniah, Rafaq, Ghalilah and Al Nakheel desalination plants, with a total production capacity of 93 thousand m3 per day. These conditions have eased pressure on aquifer, increased groundwater storage, raised of hydraulic heads by 1 m in Al Burayrat area and 16 m near Wadi Al Bih main dam and decreased the average groundwater salinity from 2,122 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 3,901 mg/L in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively, during the period 1991-1995, to 1,497 and 2,145 mg/L in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively, during the period 2010-2014. The decrease in aquifer’s salinity due to the aquifer recovery was 30% in Wadi Al Bih well field and 45% in Al Burayrat well field. The karstic nature and structural setting of Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer increases secondary porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K ranges from 32.65 to 67.30 m/d and averages 50 m/d) and enhances aquifer recharge. The temperature of the groundwater in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer varied between 32.8 and 43.3°C, with averages of 36.1°C during winter and 36.3°C during summer. The average groundwater temperature decreases from 36.5 and 36.4°C during winter to 36.4 and 35.8° C during summer in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively. The decrease of groundwater temperature in the aquifer is associated with decreasing salinity and indicates aquifer recharge from rains falling on the mountain peaks surrounding the basin. Stable isotopes (2H and 18O) suggest water in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer is recharged at an average elevation of 1,050 m. Tritium (3H) data are consistent with a local source of precipitation and that the aquifer has a small residence time of a few years. Isotope and carbonate chemistry suggest that a significant amount of the groundwater in the Wadi Al Bih well field is recharged behind the dam. This is consistent with the observation that most of the groundwater samples collected in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer suggest recent recharge by exhibiting concentrations of a few tritium units. Results of a groundwater flow model for Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer reveal that the average annual groundwater production in the present (4.5 million m3) is reasonably less than average ann read more... read less...
Keywords: Wadi Al Bih Limestone Aquifer, Safe Yield, Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 9 - 19
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Mianda Khattab and Salah El Haggar from Environmental Engineering Department, The American University in Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: As tourism industry is one of the main industrial focuses nowadays as it has grown almost by 40% since 1960 till date and it is expected to represent almost 25% of the globes population in 5 years. It has many benefits economically by getting introduced to foreign currencies and better market share; and socially by providing more job opportunities and better lifestyles yet the environmental point of view is not yet a focus, in other words in line with the industry growth huge amount of natural resources are being consumed so as to cover for the needs of the current tourists. Thus there is a need for the introduction of a novel approach that will integrate ecotourism and sustainability by introducing and implementing the zero waste strategy which will ensure conservation of natural resources with safe and environmentally friendly acts, activities and waste full utilization methods following cradle-to-cradle concept as it will be shown in the paper. read more... read less...
Keywords: Tourism, Sustainability, Eco-Tourism, Zero Waste Strategy, Cradle-To-Cradle Concept, Sustainable
SWES, volume-07, Issue 1 (2015) , PP 1 - 7
Published: 21 Nov 2015
by Ramzy R. Obaid from Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: For so many decades, hydropower generation has been one of the most attractive and effective methods of electricity generation around the world. However, when it comes to countries with low or seasonal water-flow, hydropower generation is usually deemed infeasible. Despite not having continuously running rivers; Saudi Arabia is one of the richest countries in the region in rain water with hundreds of dams holding billions of cubic meters of water behind them. Nevertheless, to date, there is not a single dam that is used for hydropower generation in the Kingdom. This paper explores this missed opportunity by showing the practicality of generating electricity even from low and seasonal water dams. It presents examples of installed hydropower plants inthe region and lists possible locations of candidate dams to install small hydropower plants in the Kingdom. Preliminary estimates of the available hydro electricity generation from the recommended sites are also presented read more... read less...
Keywords: Hydropower generation,Seasonal-Water dams,Small Hydropower,Renewable energy,Saudi Arabia